myaquaticlife was a Windows exe built on a really old multimedia framework, Multimedia Builder. I’ll use a project on Github to decompile it back to the framework file, and look at it in the original software. There’s a DLL used as a plugin that tracks the order of clicks on fish, and I can figure out the order to click and get the flag.

## Challenge

What would Flare-On do without a healthy amount of nostalgia for the abraisive simplicity of 1990’s UI design? Probably do more actual work and less writing fun challenges like this.

The file (password “flare”) is a 32-bit Windows executable that is UPX packed:

$file myaquaticlife.exe myaquaticlife.exe: PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows, UPX compressed  ## Running It Running it pops open a GUI with a bunch of animals: The icon at the top right is a cube with the letters MMB. I can click on the fish, and it may do something, but then if I click on the text in the center, a new panel loads: ## RE ### MMB Project #### UPX - Fail Because the binary is UPX packed (see the output of the file command above), I started by decompressing it with upx and looking at the result in Ghidra. This turned out to be a really bad approach. As I eventually figured out, this binary is built with a framework, and by unpacking it, I found myself reverse engineering the framework code, not the stuff specific to this binary. I will actually come back to reversing the unpacked binary later, but with additional context as to what I’m looking for to get oriented. #### Decompile t’s always good to check strings, and there’s a really interesting clule at the very bottom: oxdf@parrot$ strings myaquaticlife.exe
...[snip]...
2n0R
b3s:
]Yek'
T&)0k
U rl
!wYn
email.gif
eguxxjihvsV
MyApp
1.0.0.01Created with Multimedia Builder, version 4.9.8.13
STANDALONE


Multimedia Builder is old software designed to create multimedia apps and games with a drap and drop GUI editor and limited code. The download from their website is disabled (apparently too much malware was using the framework), but I found a downloadable version here.

There’s also a project on GitHub, MMUnbuilder, which will decompile MMBuilder applications into their project files. The links for additional information are not working, but I can give the tool a try. It’s six years old and Python2 only:

oxdf@parrot$python2 /opt/MMUnbuilder/MMUnbuilder.py -u myaquaticlife.exe MMUnbuilder - v0.1 Programmed by Miguel Febres - http://www.q-protex.com [+] Opening myaquaticlife.exe [+] Checking size... [+] Overlay data found in the end of PE file! [+] Checking if overlay data is from Multimedia Builder... [+] Multimedia Builder format version 30 found! [+] Checking if data is compiled with security layer... [+] Security Layer not found! [+] Saving project... [+] Work done!  It outputs myaquaticlife.mbd: oxdf@parrot$ file myaquaticlife.mbd
myaquaticlife.mbd: data


Unpacking the project wasn’t strictly necessary. It would be totally possible to just solve this challenge using the files stored in %TEMP% (see below).

#### Analysis

I’ll install the MMBuilder application in a Windows VM (snapshotted so I can revert afterwards since it’s a random download from the internet), and open the .mbd:

The objects bar on the right has 19 objects - 17 scripts, one browser, and one plugin.

Double clicking on an object loads a window about it. The browser object shows a reference to an index.html:

The script objects each have a bit of code. 16 of them are very simple, looking like:

Here’s each of the scripts:

Script Variable Value PluginSet
1 part1$derelict:MZZWP part1$
2 part2$lagan:BAJkR part2$
3 part2$flotsam:DFWEyEW part2$
4 part1$flotsam:PXopvM part1$
5 part2$derelict:LDNCVYU part2$
6 part3$derelict:yXQsGB part3$
7 part2$jetsam:newaui part2$
8 part3$lagan:QICMX part3$
9 part1$lagan:rOPFG part1$
10 part3$jetsam:HwdwAZ part3$
11 part1$jetsam:SLdkv part1$
12 part2$derelict:LSZvYSFHW part2$
13 part3$flotsam:BGgsuhn part3$
14 part4$lagan:GTYAKlwER part2$
15 part4$derelict:RTYXAc part4$
16 part2$lagan:GTXI part2$

Script17 has a bunch more code:

PluginRun("PlugIn","PluginFunc19")
PluginGet("PlugIn","var1$") NextPage() LoadVariable("visitors","count") count = count + 1 SaveVariable("visitors","count") vc$='Visitor Counter: ' + CHAR(count)
CreateText("mytext","visitlabel$,1050,580,yippy") LoadText("visitlabel$","vc$") colr$='TEXTCOLOR=255,0,0'
SetObjectParam("outlabel$","colr$")
SetObjectParam("outlabel$","FONTNAME=Comic Sans MS") SetObjectParam("outlabel$","FONTSIZE=24")
colors$[1] = '255,0,0' colors$[2] = '0,255,0'
colors$[3] = '0,0,255' colors$[4] = '255,0,0'
colors$[5] = '0,255,0' colors$[6] = '0,0,255'
colors$[7] = '255,0,0' colors$[8] = '0,255,0'
colors$[9] = '0,0,255' colors$[10] = '255,0,0'
colors$[11] = '0,255,0' colors$[12] = '0,0,255'
colors$[13] = '255,0,0' colors$[14] = '0,255,0'
colors$[15] = '0,0,255' For Loop= 1 To 1000 For Counter= 1 To 15 CreateText("mytext","outlabel$,20,100 + 50 * Counter,yippy")
LoadText("outlabel$","var1$")
colr$='TEXTCOLOR='+colors$[Counter]
SetObjectParam("outlabel$","colr$")
SetObjectParam("outlabel$","FONTNAME=Comic Sans MS") SetObjectParam("outlabel$","FONTSIZE=48")
Pause("1000")
DeleteObject("outlabel$") Next Counter Next Loop  The plugin has a reference to fathom.dll: #### Files Knowing that for fathom.dll to work, it would have to come with the binary, I ran it again, and did a search in c:\users\0xdf\appdata\ for fathom.dll, and found it in AppData\Local\Temp\MMBPlayer, along with all the images and two html pages: ### Click On Animal #### Dynamic Analysis The original file is upx packed, so it’s helpful for reversing to have an unpacked version. upx -d myaquaticlife.exe works great. upx overwrites the original file with the unpacked one, but I prefer to move that to myaquaticlife-unpacked.exe so I have a copy of both. I’ll open the unpacked version in x32dbg. In the Symbols tab, I can filter to get fathom.dll, and put break points at interesting functions: I want to understand how clicking on an animal sends data into the plugin. I’ll start the program from the beginning, and run until it’s waiting for input. Then I’ll click on the top left swordfish. x32Dbg breaks at SetFile, and I can see the value “derelict:MZZWP” has been passed in: With some clicking around, I can determine a few things: • The Script numbers above apply to the animals starting from the top left, working to the right, and then wrapping to the next row, like:  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [ text ] 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  • Each script sets a variable, and then that variable is passed in, except Script 14. 14 submits whatever was last set as part2$, which matches what’s in the code:

part4$='lagan:GTYAKlwER' PluginSet("PlugIn","part2$")


#### Ghidra

Still in SetFile, I’m trying to figure out how it’s saving data. The string "floatsam" catches my eye:

I don’t go this code in too much detail, but it’s looping over local_8 to check byte for byte if it matches “floatsam”, and if so, it sets this to a global I’ve named floatsam_buffer. Otherwise, it continues and does similar loops for the other three strings seen before the : above.

At the end of this function, there’s a call to a function that passes in this and a string.

#### Conclusions

I ran a bunch more tests in x32Dbg to see what was going on. It was especially helpful to have a breakpoint at that final function, 0x31c1. this will be in ECX, as it typically for ThisCall. The other variable will be on the top of the stack. Debugging shows that this is the data after the : each time. Looking at the buffer when it reaches this last function, it starts out empty, but on each successive call, it’s got the previous data appended to the end.

It seems clear from debugging that this function is appending data (what comes after :) to the end of the one of four buffers, based on what is before the :. In my debugging, it didn’t seem like there was a limit to the length of these buffers.

### PluginFunc19

PluginFunc19 is what is called when I click on the text, and what typically returns the message that I choose poorly. Now that I understand how the four buffers are set, I suspect here is where I’ll see how they are used.

Right at the top, a buffer of 31 bytes is initialized:

Then there’s some checks to ensure that floatsam and jetsam buffers have length greater than zero (I’m not sure where the address - 0x0c gets the length, but debugging shows it does).

Then there’s this loop. Inside the loop, it gets the length of floatsam, and then loops through the flag_buffer (my name) and floatsam xoring byte by byte, and looping to the start of floatsam if it exceeds the length. Immediately after, the i mod 0x11 byte of jetsam is subtracted from the byte.

The contents of the resulting buffer are copied into another buffer, and passed into a function, FUN_10002bc0. Just by looking at the API calls, it looks like it’s taking a hash:

It returns a 32-byte result, so it’s likely an MD5.

The result is compared byte by byte against a hash:

That’s enough for me to take a try here at solving this.

### Solve Script

The follow script will solve the challenge:

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import hashlib
from itertools import cycle, product

floatsam = ['DFWEyEW', 'PXopvM', 'BGgsuhn']
floatsam_idx = [3, 4, 13]
jetsam = ['newaui', 'HwdwAZ', 'SLdkv']
jetsam_idx = [7, 10, 11]
target_md5 = '6c5215b12a10e936f8de1e42083ba184'

float_strs = []
for i in range(1,7):
float_strs += [''.join(x) for x in product(floatsam, repeat=i)]

jet_strs = [''.join(x) for x in product(jetsam, repeat=3) if len(''.join(x)) == 0x11]

def check_pattern(floatsam, jetsam):
buf_init = bytearray(b"\x96\x25\xA4\xA9\xA3\x96\x9A\x90\x9F\xAF\xE5\x38\xF9\x81\x9E\x16\xF9\xCB\xE4\xA4\x87\x8F\x8F\xBA\xD2\x9D\xA7\xD1\xFC\xA3\xA8")
res = [((init ^ ord(fs)) - ord(js)) & 0xff for init, fs, js in zip(buf_init, cycle(floatsam), cycle(jetsam))]
if hashlib.md5(bytearray(res)).hexdigest() == target_md5:
print(f"flag: {''.join(chr(x) for x in res)}")
return True
return False

for fs in float_strs:
for js in jet_strs:
if check_pattern(fs, js):
print(f'floatsam: {fs}')
print(f'jetsam:   {js}')
fs_order, js_order = fs, js
for i in range(3):
fs_order = fs_order.replace(floatsam[i], f'{floatsam_idx[i]} ')
js_order = js_order.replace(jetsam[i], f'{jetsam_idx[i]} ')
print(f'click order: {fs_order}{js_order}\n')


The first thing the script does it generate the possible strings in the floatsam and jetsam buffers. Since I have no information about the length of floatsam, other than the only the first up to 31 characters will be used, I’ll use between one and six clicks. The shortest string in six characters, so six of those will cover the full 31 bytes. For jetsam, I know the length is 0x11 == 17 characters. That means there can only be three clicks (two of length six, and one of length five).

Next is check_pattern. It creates the initial value from the code, xors it by floatsam, and then subtracts jetsam. The result is converted to a bytearray and hashes, and if the hash matches, it prints the result, and returns true.

With all the strings and the function to check for the right combination, I’ll loop over all the combinations, for each checking if it solves, and if so, after printing the flag, also printing the order to click on the animals to get the flag via the application.

Running it prints the flag, and actually finds two combinations of clicks that arrive at it:

oxdf@parrot\$ python solve.py
flag: s1gn_my_gu357_b00k@flare-on.com
floatsam: PXopvMDFWEyEWBGgsuhn
jetsam:   SLdkvnewauiHwdwAZ
click order: 4 3 13 11 7 10

flag: s1gn_my_gu357_b00k@flare-on.com
floatsam: PXopvMDFWEyEWBGgsuhnPXopvMDFWEyEW
jetsam:   SLdkvnewauiHwdwAZ
click order: 4 3 13 4 3 11 7 10


Opening the application, clicking on the animals in this order, and then the text gives the flag as well:

Flag: s1gn_my_gu357_b00k@flare-on.com